Biology additional : c3

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Where are protein made?
In the ribosomes
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Name 3 types of enzymes
1) protease 2) amylase 3) lipase
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What are proteins made up of?
Proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids, the chains are folded into unique shapes, which enzymes need to do their jobs
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Why do enzymes have unique shapes?
This is because, for an enzyme to work, the substance has to fit its special shape, so they can catalyse a reaction
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What are the other uses of proteins? (4)
1) structural components of tissues (such as muscles) 2) hormones (insulin) 3) antibodies 4) catalysts
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What is an enzyme?
It is a biological catalyst, that reduce the need for high tempertures
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What is a (biological) catalyst?
Is a substance which increases the speed of a reaction without being changed or used up in the reaction
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What is a enzyme-substrate complex?
The enzyme and substrate bound together
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What is the activation energy?
The energy needed for a chemical reaction to take place
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What is an active site?
The special site in the structure of an enzyme where the substrate binds
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What happens if the shape of an enzyme changes?
It can denature the enzyme
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What are the conditions needed for enzymes to work properly??
1) Right temperature
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What temperature do enzymes work best in the human body?
37
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What is meant by the optimum pH of an enzyme?
Is the pH at which the enzyme works best at
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What is the optimum pH enzymes work best at?
pH 7 - neutral
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What is the optimum pH pepsin works best at? And why?
pH 2 - So that it is suited to the acidic conditions
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What is pepsin?
It is the enzyme used to break down proteins in the stomach
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How many reaction can an enzyme catalyse?
One
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Why can enzymes only catalyse one reaction?
Because, for the enzyme to work, it has to fit its unique shape. If the enzyme doesnt match the enzymes shape, then the reaction wont be catalysed
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What enzymes need to work?
1) Correct temperature 2) Right pH (pH 7)
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What happens to an enzyme reactions if you increase the temperature?
Initially it will increase the rate. But if it gets too hot , some of the bonds holding the enzyme breaks so it becomes denatured
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Whaat do digestive enzymes do?
They break down big molecules (e.g. fats) into smaller molecules
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What molecules are too big to pass through the walls of the digestive system? (3)
1) Starch 2) Proteins 3) Fats
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Why can't big molecules pass through the walls of the digestive system?
Because, they are too big to pass through the walls of the digestive system
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Why isn't amnio acids broken down into smaller molecules?
Because, it is already a smaller molecule so it can easily pass through the walls of the digestive system
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What molecules are small enough to pass easily through the walls of the digestive system? (4)
1) sugars 2) glycerol 3) fatty acids 4) amino acids
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What does amylase do?
It converts starch into sugars
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Where is amylase made? (3)
1) salivary glands 2) pancreas 3) small intestine
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What does protease do?
Converts proteins into amino acids
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Where is protease made? (3)
1) stomach 2) pancreas 3) small intestine
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What does lipase do?
Converts lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
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Where is lipids made? (2)
1) pancreas 2) small intestine
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What is bile?
Bile neutralises the hydrochloric acid and emulsifies fats
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Is bile alkaline or an acid?
Alkaline
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Where is bile produced?
Liver
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Where is bile stored?
Gall bladder before its released into the small intestine
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Why does bile emulsify fats?
It breaks it down, to create a bigger surface area of fat for the enzyme lipase to work on - which makes digestion fatser
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What type of substances does lipase break down?
Fats
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The monomers in proteins are...?
Amino acids
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What is the optimum temperature for an enzyme?
The temperature at which its activity is greatest
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What happens to enzymes at very high temperatures?
They are denatured
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What is the function of the salivary gland?
To produce amylase in the saliva
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What is the function of the liver?
Where bile is produced. Which neutralises stomach acid and emulsifies fats
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What is the function of the gall bladder?
Where bile is produced before being released into the small intestine
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What is the function of the large intestine?
Where the excess water is absorbed from the food
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What is the function of the rectum?
Where the faeces is stored until, it is released via the ****
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What is the function of the small intestine? (2)
1) produce lipase, protease and amylase enzymes to complete digestion 2) where food is absorbed out of the digestive system into the blood
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What is the function of the pancreas?
Produces protease, amylase and lipase. Which is released to the small intestine
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What is the function of the stomach? (3)
1) It pummels the food with its muscular walls 2) produces pepsin 3) It produces hrydrochloric acid
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Why does the stomach produce hydrochloric acid? (2)
1) to kill bacteria 2) to give the right pH for the pepsin to work (pH 2)
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Why are proteases used in some baby foods?
To pre-digest the proteins
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Give three uses of enzymes in the inudtry
1) biological washing powders 2) change the flavour of food 3) make medical products e.g. insulin
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What is respiration?
Is the process of releasing energy from the breakdown of glucose, which goes in every cell
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State 3 changes that take place in the body during vigorous excercise
Is respiration using oxygen
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What substance, stored in the liver and muscles, is broken down during exercise to release glucose?
glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ energy)
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What type of enzyme is used to turn starch syrup into sugar syrup?
Is respiration without oxygen present
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What is aerobic respiatioon?
Is respiration using oxygen
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What is the aerobic respiration equation?
glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ energy)
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Explain why the body uses anaerobic respiration during vigorous exercise?
1) Build up larger molecules into small ones. 2) In animals to allow the muscles to contract. 3) In mammals use to keep their body temperature steady. 4) In plants to build sugars, nitrates into amino acids
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What is anaerobic respiration?
Is respiration without oxygen present
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What is the anaerobic respiration equation?
glucose → energy + lactic acid
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Where does aerobic reactions take place?
Inside mitochondria
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What is the energy released by aerobic respiration used for?
1) Build up larger molecules into small ones. 2) In animals to allow the muscles to contract. 3) In mammals use to keep their body temperature steady. 4) In plants to build sugars, nitrates into amino acids
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Card 2

Front

Name 3 types of enzymes

Back

1) protease 2) amylase 3) lipase

Card 3

Front

What are proteins made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why do enzymes have unique shapes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the other uses of proteins? (4)

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Preview of the front of card 5
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