• Created by: fjhcab
  • Created on: 14-01-16 14:01
Protein Production
Ribosomes- Makes proteins, RER- Transports protein towards the GA, Vesicles- Pinches off RER carries it to the GA, Golgi Apparatus- Protein is finalised, Vesicles- Transports to cell plasma membrane, Membrane- Fuses with vesicle & leaves the cell
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Site of ATP production, releases energy
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Cell Plasma Membrane
Partially permeable, separates cell from its surroundings, controls what enters and leaves the cell
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Golgi Apparatus
Processes and Packages proteins
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Site of chemical reactions, watery component of a cell where the organelles are located
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Stores enzymes, metabolic wastes, toxins & other cell products
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Site of protein synthesis
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Cell Wall
Helps support and protect a plant
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Tiny hair-like structures used for movement
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Contains digestive enzymes used to digest invading cells or to break down worn out components of the cell
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Site of photosynthesis, contains grana, lamella and stroma
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Controls the cells activities, contains DNA
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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
Synthesises and processes lipids
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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
Folds and Processes proteins
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Transports substances in & out of the cell and between organelles
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Provide movement for the cell
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Supports the organelles keeping them in position,Strengthens cell and maintains its shape, Responsible for the movement of materials within the cell & can also cause the cell to move
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Formula to find magnification
Magnification=image size/object size
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Have a hydrophilic head & a hydrophobic tail. Arrange themselves in a bilayer 7nm thick
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Gives mechanical stability and flexibility
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Carrier Proteins
Transports molecules and ions across the membrane by active transport and facilitated diffusion
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Channel Proteins
Allow small or charged particles through the membrane
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Glycolipids and Glycoproteins
Stabilise the membrane by forming hydrogen bonds. Act as receptors for cell signalling
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Cell Signalling
How cells communicate with each other to control processes & respond to changes in the environment
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Cell Membrane Receptors
Have a specific shape so only messenger molecules with a complementary shape can bind to them
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Membrane-Temp below 0°c
Phospholipids pack close together don't have much energy. Proteins deform increasing permeability
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Membrane-Temp between 0 to 45°c
Phospholipids can move more as the temp increases, increasing the permeability
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Membrane-Temp above 45°c
Bilayer starts to melt. Proteins start to denature so they can't control what enters or leaves the cell. Increasing the permeability
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Net movement of particles form an area of high concentration to low concentration. Passive- no energy required
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How to increase the rate of diffusion
Higher concentration gradient, Thinner exchange surface, Larger surface area & Higher temperature
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Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion through carrier or channel proteins
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Active Transport
Net movement of particles from an area of low concentration to high. Uses energy
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How cells take in substances too large for carrier protein
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How cells release substances they produce (Lipids, hormones)
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Diffusion of water molecules
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Higher water potential than in cell
Net movement into cell. Cell bursts
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Same water potential as the cell
Net movement equal. Cell stays the same
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Lower water potential than in cell
Net movement out of cell. Cell shrinks
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Hypotonic solution (Plants)
Net movement into cell. Vacuole swells. Cell becomes turgid
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Isotonic solution (Plants)
Net movement equal. Cell stays the same
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Hypertonic solution (Plants)
Net movement out of cell. Cell becomes flaccid
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Cell Cycle
The process of growth and division in multicellular organisms. M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis), G1 (Gap phase 1), S (Synthesis) & G2 (Gap phase 2)
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Needed for growth of multicellular organisms and for repairing damaged tissues
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Stages of Mitosis
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
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Before mitosis. Cell carries out normal functions. DNA is unravelled and replicated. Organelles are replicated
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Chromosomes condense. Centrioles move to opposite poles forming the spindle. Nuclear envelope breaks down
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Chromosomes line up on the equator and attached to the spindle by their centromeres
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Centromeres divide, separating the sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell
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Chromatids uncoil and are called chromosomes again. Nuclear envelope forms around each group of chromosomes forming 2 nuclei
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Cytoplasm divides. A cleavage furrow to divide the cell membrane. Two daughter cells are formed which are genetically identical
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Involves reduction division so uses haploid cells to produce four daughter cells
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Stages of Meiosis
Prophase 1, Metaphase 1, Anaphase 1, Telophase 1, Cytokinesis, Prophase 2, Metaphase 2, Anaphase 2, Telophase 2 & Ctyokinesis
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Has half the normal number of chromosomes. Represented of n
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Has full number of chromosomes. Represented as 2n
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Daughter Cell
Genetically identical to the parent cells
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Homologous Chromosomes
Has the same genes in the same order, one from mother one from father
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DNA and protein that forms chromosomes
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Proteins found in the nucleus
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Carry's genetic information in the form of genes
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Separate strands of the chromosome
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Joins the two chromatid's together
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Stem Cells
Unspecialised cells that can develop into different types of cells. Used to replace damaged cells
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How are neutrophils (WBC) specialised?
Flexible shape-Allows them to engulf foreign particles. Many lysosomes- To break down the engulfed particles
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How are erythrocytes (RBC) specialised?
Biconcave Shape-Provide a large surface area. No Nucleus- More room for haemoglobin
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How are Epithelial cells specialised?
Ciliated epithelia have cilia that beat to move particles away. Squamous epithelial are very thin to allow efficient diffusion of gases
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How are Palisade cells specialised?
Contain many chloroplasts-To absorb lots of sunlight. Thin walls- Easy to diffuse across
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How are Root Hair cells specialised?
Large suface area- For absorption. Extra mitochondria-Provide energy for active transport
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How are Guard cells specialised?
Has tiny pores in surface- For gas exchange. Thin walls & thickened inner walls- force them to bend outwards making stomata open
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Similar cells are organised into tissues
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Squamous Epithelium
Single layer of flat cells (Alveoli)
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Ciliated Epithelium
Layer of cells covered in cilia. Moves things like mucus. (Trachea)
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Muscle Tissue
Made up of elongated cells called muscle fibre (Smooth,Cardiac,Skeletal)
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Shapes and supports windpipe & nose
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Different tissues make up an organ
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Organ System
Different organs make up an organ system
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Reasons for needing an exchange surface
Some cells are deep within the body, have a low SA:V, have a higher metabolic rate
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Goblet Cell
Secretes mucus
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Beat the mucus
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Elastic Fibres
Helps the process of breathing.On breathing in fibres stretch, on breathing out fires recoil
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Smooth Muscle
Controls the diameter of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles
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Strong but flexible,stops the trachea & bronchi collapsing
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Tidal Volume
The volume of air in each breath
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Vital Capacity
The maximum volume of air that can be breathed in or out
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Breathing Rate
How many breaths are taken usually in a minute
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Oxygen Consumption/Uptake
The rate at which an organism uses up oxygen
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Counter-Current System
Blood and water flows in opposite directions to maintain a favourable concentration gradient
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Carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body
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Take blood back to the heart under low pressure
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Connect veins and arteries
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The biggest and largest artery in the body. It carries oxygen rich blood from the left ventricle to the heart to the body
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Inferior Vena Cava
A large vein that carries oxygen-poor blood to the right atrium from the lower half of the body
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Left Atrium
The left upper chamber. Receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs via the pulmonary vein
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Left Ventricle
The left lower chamber of the heart. Pumps blood into the aorta
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Mitral Value
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle. Prevents back-flow into the atrium
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Pulmonary Artery
Blood vessel that carries oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
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Pulmonary Valve
Flap between the right ventricle & the pulmonary artery
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Pulmonary Vein
Blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
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Right Atrium
Right upper chamber, receives oxygen-poor blood from the body through the inferior vena cava and superior vena cava
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Right Ventricle
Right lower chamber,pumps blood into the pulmonary artery
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Muscular wall that separates the left and right sides
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Superior Vena Cava
Large vein the carries oxygen-poor blood to the right atrium from the upper parts of the body
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Tricuspid Valve
Flap between the right atrium and right ventricle. Prevents back flow to the atrium
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P Wave
Contraction of the atria
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QRS Complex
Contraction of the ventricles
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T Wave
Relaxation of the ventricles
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Electrocardiograph (ECG)
Records the electrical activity of the heart
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Heartbeat too fast
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Heartbeat too slow
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Ectopic Heartbeat
An extra heartbeat
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Really irregular heartbeat
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A large protein with a quaternary structure made up of 4 polypeptide chain
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Dissociation Curve
Shows how saturated the haemoglobin is with oxygen
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Fetal Haemoglobin
Has a higher affinity for oxygen than adult haemoglobin
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Carbon Dioxide In Haemoglobin
Reacts with water to form carbonic acid, catalysed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic acid dissociates to give hydrogen ions & hydrogen carbonate ions. Oxyhaemoglobin unloads the oxygen to take up the hydrogen ions to form haemoglobinic acid.
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Carbon Dioxide In Haemoglobin(2)
Hydrogencarbonate ions diffuse out so chloride ions diffuse in. This is the chloride shift. When the blood reaches the lung the hydrogen and hydrogencarbonate ions recombine into CO2
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Transports water and mineral ions
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Transports solutes (sucrose)
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Xylem Vessels
Long, tube like structure. No end walls making an uninterrupted tube. Cells are dead. Thickened with lignin
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Supports the xylem vessels & stops them collapsing inwards
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Sieve Tube Element
Made of living cells. Joined end to end. No nucleus, thin cytoplasm and few organelles
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Companion Cells
Theres a companion cell for every five tube element. Carry out the living functions for both themselves and their sieve tube element
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Water molecules are attracted to to the walls of the xylem vessels
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The evaporation of water rom a plants surface
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Factors that increase transpiration rate
Lighter, higher temperatures, lower humidity & windier
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Used to estimate transpiration rate
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Xerophytic Plants
Adapted to reduce water loss
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Spines to reduce surface area. Close stomata at the hottest part of the day. Thick waxy layer on epidermis-reduces water loss by evaporation
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Marram Grass
Stomata sunk in pits-Sheltered from the wind slows down transpiration . Lots of hairs on epidermis-traps moist air slowing transpiration. Thick waxy layer on epidermis-reduces water loss by evaporation
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Hydrophillic Plants
Adapted to survive in water
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Water lilies
Air spaces in tissues- Help plant float & act as a store of oxygen. Stomata on upper surface of leaves- Maximise gas exchange. Flexible leaves and stems- Helps prevent damage by water current
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The movement of dissolved substance Moving them from sources to sinks
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Where the substance is made so is at high concentrations (Leaves)
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Where the substance is used up so is at low concentrations (Roots & Flowers)
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Site of ATP production, releases energy

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Cell Plasma Membrane


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Golgi Apparatus


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