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  • Created by: mattyd
  • Created on: 19-10-15 02:52
What is mutation?
The changing in the structure of the gene, resulting in a variant form which may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes
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What are the advantages of mutation?
Some species of organisms depend on mutation for survival. For example pesticides may kill the majority of insects sprayed, but there will be some that have slight variations or mutations in their genes, which give them resistance.
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What are the disadvantages of mutation?
Certain mutations result in uncontrolled cell division, which can result in cancerous tumours
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What is Klinefelter Syndrome?
A chromosome disorder that affects males. The affected male has additional X chromosomes which causes infertility and may cause the development of characteristics such as tall stature and breasts
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What is the process of natural selection?
States that those organisms that have characteristics that best suit their environment will survive
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What is a chromosome?
Tiny threadlike structures in the nucleus of a cell. Chromosomes contain the DNA that carries the genetic information
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What is phenotype?
The set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment
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What is a genotype?
Information inherited from the parents and contained in the DNA
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What is the dominant?
Relates to or denotes heritable characteristics which are controlled by genes that are expressed in offspring even when its is only inherited by one parent
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What is the recessive?
A gene that is not dominant, and can only manifest when a gene of both parents is the same
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What is heterozygous?
Refers to a pair of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive; they're different
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What is homozygous?
having identical pairs of genes for any given pair of hereditary characteristics
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What is biotechnology?
The exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, especially genetic manipulation of micro-organims for the production of antibiotics, hormones
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What is mitosis?
Mitosis is cell divison for growth, repair and replacement
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What is meiosis?
cell division for the production of sex cells
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What are biotic factors?
Factors that relate to living organisms, such as fungi, bacteria etc
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What are abiotic factors?
Factors relating to non-living organisms, such as drought, stress etc
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How does natural selection relate to the theory of evolution?
Organisms that are well suited to their environment are more likely to survive longer and produce greater amounts of offspring
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What is the theory of evolution?
The theory of evolution is that every organism on earth is a descendent of those that lived millions of years ago
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What evidence is there for the theory of evolution?
Evidence includes molecular biology, comparative anatomy and embryology, and fossil records
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What is Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution?
He proposed that all species of finches in the Galapagos Islands were the descendants of one shared ancestral species, a ground dwelling, seed-eating finch.
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What was Darwin's example of Evolution?
Darwin proposed that an ancestral species of finch had spread through the islands. In each place different sources of food were available, and those finches with the best beaks for obtaining the local food survived and reproduced more successfully.
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What is adaptive radiation?
Variety of different species evolve from a common ancestor as a result of isolation and migration where favourable characteristics prevail when exposed to different environments
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What is the Law of Superposition?
Older rocks are usually found at the bottom and younger layers at the top
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How can Palaeontologists determine the relative age of fossils?
Through studying this sequence of rock layers
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What are sedimentary rocks?
Form when broken up pieces of rock (sediment) are layered on top of each other in a process called sedimentation
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What is the process of compaction?
The squeezing together of grains as more layers are added.
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What is the process of cementation?
Minerals glue grains together to form new rocks
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What are fossils?
The remains of past life preserved in soil, amber and rock. Fossils found in certain rock layer are approximately the same age as the rock
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What is absolute age?
The fossils actual age, can be dated through the use of carbon dating, radiometric dating and uranium dating
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What is relative age?
Relative age of a fossil refers to the age of a fossil in relation to surrounding fossils. It is whether fossils are older or younger than fossils around it. It is an about age. Dated using the law of superposition.
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What is gene technology?
The term given to a range of activities concerned with understanding the expression of genes, taking advantage of natural genetic variation, modifying genes and transferring genes to new hosts.
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What is an example of gene technology?
DNA fingerprints - used for forensics and paternity tests
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What is cloning?
Cloning is the production of an identical organism, with identical DNA and genetic information.
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What are the benefits of cloning?
The benefits of cloning include: Disease treatments, organ replacement, research into new diseases
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What are the problems with cloning?
Unethical, animal cruelty, creation of mutations, creation of superbugs/viruses,
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Identify the role of genes and environmental factors in deterring the features of an organism?
Genes and environmental factors have a large role in determining the features of an organism. Genes are what you inherit from you parents, however environmental factors determine your exterior features. Weight/height is combination
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What is adaption?
The process where an organism becomes better suited to its environment
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Card 2


What are the advantages of mutation?


Some species of organisms depend on mutation for survival. For example pesticides may kill the majority of insects sprayed, but there will be some that have slight variations or mutations in their genes, which give them resistance.

Card 3


What are the disadvantages of mutation?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is Klinefelter Syndrome?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the process of natural selection?


Preview of the front of card 5
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Blake Fung

sick quiz bro!

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