Biology

Everything you need to know for a tough yr 7 End of Year exam. Contain GCSE info too.

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  • Created by: Akki
  • Created on: 20-04-13 22:21
What is a Nucleus?
Nucleus- contains genetic information and controls activities of the cell.
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What is Cytoplasm?
Cytoplasm- a gel-like substance where most of the chemical reactions happen.
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What is a Cell Membrane?
Cell Membrane- controls what goes IN and OUT of the cell.
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What are Mitochondria?
Mitochondria- where RESPIRATION takes place. Respiration releases energy!!
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What are Ribosomes?
Ribosomes- where PROTEINS are made in the cell.
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What is a Cell Wall?
Cell Wall- made of cellulose. Supports and strengthens the cell.
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What is a Vacuole?
Vacuole- contains cell sap. Supports and strengthens cell, helps keep it firm.
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What is are Chloroplasts?
Chloroplasts- this is where PHOTOSYNTHESIS takes place. Contains a green substance called chlorophyll.
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What organelles do Animal Cells contain?
Nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, ribosomes, cell membrane.
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What organelles do Plant Cells contain?
Nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, vacuole, chloroplasts.
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Name some specialized cells:
Muscle Cell, Sperm Cell, Red Blood Cell, Guard Cell, Palisade Cell, White Blood Cell, Nerve Cell.
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What are the functions and adaptions of a Muscle Cell? (Animal Cell)
Function- Allows movement of different parts of the body. Adaptions- Contains lots of mitochondria to produce energy.
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What are the functions and adaptions of a Sperm Cell? (Animal Cell)
Function- To carry the male genetic information (DNA) to the ovum (egg cell) and bring about fertilization. Adaptions- long tail, lots of mitochondria, enzymes on head to dissolve through ovum membrane, contains 23 chromosomes
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What are the functions and adaptions of a Red Blood Cell? (Animal Cell)
Function- To carry oxegen to all the respiring cells in the body. Adaptions- Concave shape (large surface area to absord oxegen), no nucleus (more space to carry oxegen), Haemoglobin (red pigment).
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What are the functions and adaptions of a Guard Cell? (Plant Cell)
Function- Act as pores which can open and close to let gases in and out. Adaptions- Sensetive to light (so can close at night and save water), Can lose and gain water to open and close.
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What are the functions and adaptions of a Palisade Cell? (Plant Cell)
Function- To enable photosynthesis to be carried out efficiently. Adaptions- Packed with chloroplasts, the chloroplasts are grouped together at the top of the leap where most photosynthesis takes place.
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What are cells?
Cells are basic building blocks of all animal and plants. During development of multicellular organisms, cells differentiate and become specialized to carry out particular functions.
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What are Tissues?
A tisssue is a group of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function. Examples of tissues: Muscular tissue, Glandular tissue, Epithelial tissue.
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What are Organs?
Groups of tissue are then joined together to form more complicated structures that are called organs. E.g. the heart is made up of epithelial and muscle tissue.
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What are Organ Systems?
Organs can then be organised into organ systems. This is a group of organs that work together to perform a particular function. E.g. Digestive System.
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What are Proteins made up of?
Proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids.
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What do Proteins act as?
Proteins act as: Structural components of tissues such as muscles, Hormones, Catalysts.
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What are Carbohydrates made up of?
Carbohydrates are made up of long chains of glucose (sugar) units. Sugar Molecules.
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What do Carbohydrates act as?
Carbohydrates act as: Energy source (released from glucose during respiration), Energy store e.g. starch, Structure e.g. cellulose.
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What are Fats (lipids) made up of?
Fat molecules are made up of long chains of 3 fatty acid tails and a glycerol head.
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What do Fats (lipids) provide?
Fats provide a range of different functions such as: Energy source/storage, insulation and buoyancy
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What is an Iodine, Biuret, Ethanol Emulsion ans Benedicts Test for?
Iodine Test- Starch/Carbohydrate (Positive= blue/black colour appears). Biuret Test- Proteins(Positive= purple colour appears). Ethanol Emulsion Test- Fats(Positive= a milky emulsion appears). Benedicts Test- Sugar (Positive= WIll gradually turn red)
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What is a Balanced Diet?
A Balanced Diet includes: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Vitamins and Minerals, Fibre and Water.
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What do you need Water, Fibre etc... For?
Protein- Growth and Repair. Fat- Insulation and Energy. Carbohydrate- Energy. Fibre- Prevents Constipation. Vits and Mins- General Health, Bones, Teeth and Imune System. Water- Controls concentration of chemicals in the body.
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Why do people get Rickets?
Lack of Vitamin D and Calcium.
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Why do people get Scurvy?
Lack of Vitamin C
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Why do people get Obese?
Too much food (escpecially fatty foods)
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Why do people get Kwashiorkor?
Not enough Protein in their diet.
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Why do people get Anorexia?
Consuming too little food.
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What are enzymes?
Enzymes are PROTEINS that speed up chemical reactions by acting as biological catalysts. They are vital to life and catalyse metabolic reactions in your body e.g. digestion and respiration.
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How do Enzymes work?
ENzymes have an active site which has a specific shape. The active site is the part of the enzyme where a substrate molecule binds to. After the reaction the Enzyme still remains unchanged.
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How does temperature affect Enzymes?
If the body temperature is too high or too low, it can alter the Enzymes shape which will make it DENATURED. Enzymes work best at 37°C.
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Name the main parts of the Digestive System.
Mouth, Salivary Glands, Oesophagus, Liver, Stomach, Gall Bladder, Pancreas, Small Instestine, Large Intestine, Rectum, Anus.
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Which organ produces Bile and which organ stores it?
The Liver produces Bile and the Gall Bladder stores it.
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What enzyme does saliva contain?
Amylase.
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What does the stomach contain?
It contains protease (called pepsin in the stomach) enzyme and hydrochloric acid to kill bacteria.
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What does the Pancreas produce?
It produces the enzymes protease, lipase and amylase and releases it into the Small Intestine.
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What does the Large Intestine do?
Water from the waste food is absorbed here.
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What does the Rectum and Anus do?
the Rectum stores the faeces (poo) and the faeces leaves the body through the Anus.
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What does the Amylase enzyme do?
Amylase breaks up the long chains of sugar molecules, so they are small enough to go through the digestive system.
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What does the Protease enzyme do?
Protease breaks up the long chains of amino acids, so they are small enough to go through the digestive system.
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What does the Lipase enzyme do?
Lipase breaks up the long chains of Fatty acids and Glycerol, so they are small enough to go through the digestive system.
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What are the 3 main parts of the Nervous system?
The Brain, the Spinal cord, Nerve fibres. (The brain and the spinal cord make up the CNS- Central Nervous System)
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What is the order of response in a nervous impulse? Explain them.
Stimulus (a change in the enviroment that triggers a response) ---> Receptor (Cells that detect stimuli e.g. taste sight etc...) ---> Effector (Any part of the body that triggers a response) ---> Response (something you do to react to the stimuli)
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Name different sense organs, their stimulus and their receptors.
Eye- light- photoreceptors on retina. Ear- sound, gravity (balance & motion)- hair cells in ear. Nose- smell, taste- chemical receptors. Tongue- taste- taste buds (chemical receptors). Skin- touch, pressure, temperature, pain- receptive nerve endings
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Name some parts of the Eye.
Ciliary Muscle, Iris, Lens, Cornea, Pupil, Suspensory Ligament, Vitreous Humour, Sclera, Blind Spot, Optic Nerve, Fovea, Retina, Aqueous Humour.
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What is the function of the Cornea?
A transparent window at the front of the eye that lets light through and bends light.
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What is the function of the Lens?
Helps focus light on the retina.
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What is the function of the Retina?
Contains cells which are light sensitive.
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What is the function of the Sclera?
Tough outer coat of the eye which is visible as the white part of the eye.
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What is the function of the Iris?
Coloured part of eye made of muscle- controls amount of light going into the eye.
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What is the function of the Pupil?
A hole in the middle of the iris that lets light through and is made bigger or smaller by the iris.
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What is the function of the Optic Nerve?
Carries impulses to the brain.
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What is the function of the Suspensory Ligaments?
Holds Lens in place.
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How does the eye focus on near objects?
The Cililary Muscle contracts (and gets fatter) and the suspensory ligaments become looser so the lens is spherical. This refracts the light more so it can be focused on the retina. (Near objects require more refracting)
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How does the eye focus on distant objects?
The Ciliary Muscle relaxes and the Suspensory ligaments become taut. The lens is pulled into a thin shape. (Light rays from distant objects are nearly parallel and don't require much refraction)
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Name a few ways why Energy is needed.
It is needed for: Muscle contraction, keeping a constant internal temperature (37°C), To carry out chemical reactions.
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How is Energy created?
Aerobic Respiration and Anaerobic Respiration.
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What is Aerobic Respiration?
GLUCOSE (from the digestive system) + OXYGEN (from the breathing system) ---> CARBON DIOXIDE (waste product exhaled) + WATER (waste product exhaled) + ENERGY (useful!!)
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What is Anaerobic Respiration?
GLUCOSE ---> LACTIC ACID + ENERGY! (this type of respiration causes us to tire and the pain makes an athelete to stop exercising. To remove the lactic acid that has built up in the muscles we use oxegen, which is why we breath heavily after exercise)
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What is Oxygen Debt?
The amount of oxygen needed to break down the lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water.
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What are the effects of Exercise?
The body needs to release more energy, so oxygen and glucose need to reach muscle cells quickly, so blood is pumped around the body faste; breathing rate is increased.
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How does the heart and breathing rate respond whilst someone is sleeping?
The body needs less energy so oxygen and glucose need to reach muscle cells slowly; so blood is pumped around the body slower; breathing rate is slow and relaxed.
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What is Cytoplasm?

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Card 4

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What are Mitochondria?

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Card 5

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What are Ribosomes?

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