Biology so far...

what is the percentage composition of blood (and uses)
plasma 55% carries hormones
red blood cells 45% carry oxygen
white blood cells < 1% destroy pathogens
platelets < 1 % clotting
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give three red blood cell facts
no nucleus - more space for haemoglobin
biconcave disk - large surface area
45% of blood
transports oxygen
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what six things does plasma contain?
carbon dioxide
heat energy
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what are the three types of blood vessels?
arteries, capillaries, veins
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give three artery facts
- travel away from heart
- small lumen
- thick walls bc under high pressure
- thick layer of elastic tissue to push blood
- not permeable
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give three vein facts
- travel towards the heart at low pressure and slowly
- large lumen
- thin walls
- often have valves
- not permeable
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give three capillary facts
- very thin
- where things diffuse into and out of blood
- blood flow slow/at low pressure
- lots of friction
- permeable
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what is DNA?
A chemical which stores information and copies itself
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What is a gene?
a section of DNA that codes for a protein
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what is an allele?
different version of a gene
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what is a chromosome?
a single long strand of DNA divided into many genes. 46 in human body
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what is the pH of the
small intestine
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how does bile help the digestive process?
- it emulsifies subsances; turns big droplets into small droplets, easier for lipase to break down
- it neutralises stomach acid entering small intestine
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what three enzymes are made in the pancreas
protease, lipase and carbohydrase
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what is a chromatid?
a copy of a chromosome
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what are the steps of mitosis?
the DNA copies itself
all chromosomes line up on equator cell
2 copies of each chromosome pulled to poles of the cell
cell splits into two identical daughter cells
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what are stem cells?
cells that can divide by mitosis to form more cells to differentiate into specialised cells (e.g nerve, skin)
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what is the function of valves in veins?
because blood is at such low pressure, the valves make sure blood flows in correct direction
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what is a substrate?
molecule specific to an enzyme's active sight
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what are the phases of a cell's life?
interphase - DNA is replicated and new cell organelles are formed
mitosis - division of the nucleus
cytokinesis - cytoplasm divides and membrane splits in two
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what are the three types of tissue?
glandular, secretes substances, muscular, contracts to cause movement, and epithelial, thin layer lining organs for protection
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what is the function of the pancreas?
produces insulin to manage blood sugar levels + produces pancreatic enzymes to break down foods
produce sperm and testosterone
involved in excretion and prod urine
22 of 77
what is starch a polymer of?
is it insoluble or soluble?
where can it be found?
in plants
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what is cellulose a polymer of?
is it insoluble or soluble?
where can it be found?
in the cell walls of plants
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where is glycogen found?
is it insoluble or soluble?
what is it similar to?
in animals
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what are lipids made of?
what are they used for in the body?
are they soluble or insoluble?
a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids
reserve energy, keeping you warm, water proofing
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what is used to test for:
carbon dioxide
and how you know when testing
benedict's - blue to brick red
iodine - goes brown to blue/black
biuret - pale blue to purple
ethanol - cloudy white layer will appear on top of water
27 of 77
is using a biuret solution a qualitative or quantitative test?
28 of 77
what are the three main types of molecules that make food?
carbohydrates, protein, lipids
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what is protein a polymer of?
what does it mean if a protein is denatured?
amino acids
the shape of the protein is damaged by heat or an incorrect Ph
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what are essential amino acids?
the ones you need in your diet and your body cannot make
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what are the four things protein can do?
hormones - chemical messengers in the blood
enzymes - biological catalysts
form structure
antibodies - part of the immune system
use the acronym HEFA :D
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how do enzymes work?
- they speed up reactions as biological catalysts
- do this by lowering activation energy
- have an active site which is specific to the substrate
- they are not use up when reacting
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what does a buffer solution do?
provide a constant pH
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what is the use of fruit in a plant? 2
- nourish developing seeds
- distribute seeds
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36 of 77
what is the function of the phloem?
what is the function of the xylem?
- transport dissolved food (sugars)
- transport water and mineral ions
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what happens in the spongy mesophyll of a plant?
what is the function of a leaf's waxy cuticle?
gas exchange
prevents evaporation of water
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what are the three types of disease?
- communicable
- non-communicable
- inherited
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what are communicable diseases caused by?
40 of 77
draw a bacteria
search it up :)
41 of 77
how do bacteria divide?
binary fission
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what are three ways bacteria can make us sick?
- releasing toxic substances
- directly damaging cells
- having symptoms from immune system trying to kill bacteria
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do all viruses cause disease?
are they living or non-living?
what are they made from?
protein and DNA
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how do viruses reproduce? (5 steps)
- attachment
- inject into cell, degrade host DNA
- synthesis of viral genome's protein
- assembly
- release; cell bursts
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what are four methods to prevent the spread of communicable diseases?
- hygiene
- isolation
- destroy or control viruses
- vaccination
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how is measles transferred?
what are three of its symptoms?
how can you treat it?
physical contact/sneezing/mucus
coughing/fever/rash/conjunctivitis/cold-like symptoms
vitamin A supplements
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how is HIV transferred?
what are its symptoms?
what does it lead to?
unprotected sex/needles/unprotected blood transfusions/breast feeding
reduces immune system effectiveness
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what is tobacco mosaic virus?
how is TMV transferred?
what are its symptoms?
a plant viral disease
leaf contact
yellowing plant tissue/stunted growth
less chlorophyll
49 of 77
what is salmonella caused by?
what are its symptoms?
how can it be prevented
bacteria that live in the guts of many animals
cook thoroughly/vaccinate chickens/don't wash chickens
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how is Gonnorrhoea transferred?
what are its symptoms?
what does it lead to?
what can it be treated by?
unprotected sex
thick yellow/green discharge, pain urinating
infertility, pain in groin
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how is crown gall disease transferred?
what are its symptoms?
- bacteria planting plasmids (tiny rings of DNA) into plant cells
makes plants weak
52 of 77
what is malaria cause by?
what parts of the body does it affect?
how to stop it from spreading 3
a protist
liver and red blood cells by copying itself
fever, shaking, can be fatal, weakens person over time, nauseous
not be bitten, kill mosquitos, destroy habitat, vaccinate, introduce sterile males, anti-malaria drugs
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do fungi have a nucleus?
are they unicellular or multicellular?
can they photosynthesise?
- yes
- can be both
- no
54 of 77
what is rose black spot?
how is it spread?
what is dangerous about the spores?
- a fungal plant disease
- less photosynthesis, black spots and yellow leaves, does not flower well
- spores spread in wind
- they remain dormant over winter on the stems
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what are the two groups of the body's defence mechanisms?
specific and non-specific
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what is the body's main physical barrier to pathogen entry?
the skin
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what is produced in the stomach to kill microorganisms?
hydrochloric acid
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where are two places cilia act as a physical defence?
nose and trachea
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what are lymphocytes, phagocytes and leucocytes?
ly - makes antibodies
pha - engulfs bacteria and destroys
leu - all white blood cells
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what is the process of engulfing bacteria called?
61 of 77
why is aphids drinking from the phloem bad?
- less sugars = less respiration = less protein made/growth
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what can an aphid be while drinking from a plant's phloem?
a vector for plant disease
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what are two methods for controlling the aphid population?
- chemical pesticides
- biological control, eg introducing a predator (ladybug)
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why are nematode and insect larvae feeding on plant roots bad? 3 marks
- roots absorb nitrate ions
- nitrates make protein
- without protein, cannot grow
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what is chlorosis?
lack of chlorophyll, when plant can't photosynthesise
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what disease? (plants)
- stunted growth
- spots on leaves
- decay/rotting
- growths
- discoloration
- visible pests
- nitrate deficiency
- rose black spot
- rose black spot/potato blight
- crown gall disease
- chlorosis
- aphids/caterpillars
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what are two ways to treat plant disease?
- pesticides
- removes diseased plant
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give three ways plants defend against herbivores
- spiky leaves
- poisonous
- cell wall hard to digest
- produce antibacterial substances
- leaves fall off
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how are deciduous trees adapted to defend against pathogens?
- when leaves fall off, so do all pathogens on them, tree is getting rid of disease
70 of 77
what is a plant that produces antibacterial substances?
71 of 77
how is a holly bush adapted to stop pathogens from entering?
has a waxy cuticle that stops pathogens entering the stomata
72 of 77
give an example of mimicry
plant mimics butterfly eggs so no more are laid
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what is an antigen?
a marker on the surface of a pathogen that identifies them as what they are
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how can foreign cells be identified?
by their antigens
75 of 77
what are B lymphocytes?
what do each type of them produce?
type of white blood cell
a unique antibody
76 of 77
explain how someone become immune
- after an infection, white blood cells which made antibodies for pathogen are kept in blood in higher numbers. these are called memory cells. remain in blood and divide quickly if you are infected again
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


give three red blood cell facts


no nucleus - more space for haemoglobin
biconcave disk - large surface area
45% of blood
transports oxygen

Card 3


what six things does plasma contain?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what are the three types of blood vessels?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


give three artery facts


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


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