Biology

  • Created by: 31AllenK2
  • Created on: 03-06-19 15:56

Animal & Plant Cells

Animal & Plant

  • Nucleus, job is it contains DNA 
  • Cytoplasm, job where most chemical reaction takes place 
  • Cell membrane, job controls substances passing in and out 
  • Mitochondria, job where aerobic respiration 

Plant Only

  • Vacuole, job contains cell sap
  • Cell wall, job Provides strength
  • Chloroplast, job Contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis
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Specialised Cells

Red blood cell- job is to carry oxygen around the body. Has no nuclues, mitochondria in order to carry more oxygen(hemoglobin). Has a biconcave disc shape so it can fit through the capilliares

White Blood cell-job to destroy bacteria. they can change shape so they can chase or ingolb. Has a nucleus.

Egg cell- job sexual reproduction. Lots of cytoplasm.

Sperm Cell- Job sexual reproduction. tail to help it move.

Sensory Neurone- Job Receptors to brain and spinal cord long fibres to carry impulses.

Motor Neurone- Job Carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscualr glands long fibres.

Root hair- job absorption, Extension of cell increases surface area.

Xylem- Job to carry Water no cytoplasm or organelles

Phloem- job Dissolved Sugar Compansion cell with organelles.

Guard cell- job allow C02 to enter for photosynthesis can open up and close.

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Cells, Tissues and Organs

Tissues is a group of cells that work together to do a specific job

Organ is a group of tissues that work together to do a specific job

Organ System is a group of organs that work together to do a specific job.

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Diffusion, Osmosis, Active Transport

Diffusion is when molecules go from a high  concentration to a low concentration until the molecules are equally spread out. 

Factors affecting, Temperature: more kinectic energy rate increases, Surface Area: bigger the SA faster the rate. link to villi & Alevoli

Osmosis is the movement of water. from a high concentration to a low concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. Too much salt cell shrivels up. Too much water cell explodes. Equal amount the cell is Isotonic, no net gain so when 2 molecules move there is no gain.

Active Transport is the movement of molecoules from a low concentration to a high it needs ATP which is made by respiration in the mitochondria and needs oxygen to work.

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Heart PT 1

Image result for heart diagram gcse

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Heart PT2

Right Ventricle muscle wall is smaller than the left as it doesn't need to pump the blood as far as the left side does. As the left side needs to pump blood to your feet where as the right side only to your lungs which are closer. 

 

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Cardio-vascular Disease (CVD)

Cornoary arteries- job is to supply oxygen to the hearts muscle

Risk Factors

  • Smoking-Less Oxygen into blood
  • High fat diet- High cholesterol build up
  • Lack of exercise- Overweight
  • High stress life- High blood pressure
  • Inherited Genes- parents have had CVD you will mostly like

Atheroma  is a build up of fat which narrows/blocks the coronary arteries. Links to a stroke as it could break off and get into the Aorta it could travel to the brain and block the capillaires stopping oxygenated blood getting through. 

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Cardio-vascular Disease (CVD) PT2

Treating CVD

Statins= + reduces chlorestrial. - Side effetcs

Angioplastry= +Ballon wire mesh opens coronary artery, - sometimes temporary

Change lifestyle/Diet= + stop smoking, exercise, cutout fat in diet, - will power people don't have to do it. 

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Testing a Leaf for starch

1. Liquid? Boiling water

Why? Cell Wall breaks down

2.Liquid? Alchol

Why? Removes the chlorophyll

3. Liquid? Water

Why? Removes the alchol 

4.Liquid? Iodine

Why? Test for starch 

De-starching a plant

How? Dark for 24hrs

Why? Turns all the starch into glusoce.

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Transpiration

Rate of water up take from roots to leave

1.Plants Absorb water via Osmosis through the root hair cell has small hairs to increases the SA

2. Water is caarried up the stem into the xylem tissue one way upwards to the leaf.

3.Goes up the stem into the leaves for photosynthesis then used in respiration after it is finished it leaves via the stomatoa or it is used to create pressure inisde the cells e.g vacuole (Turgid full of water)

4. Phloem tissue goes 2 ways and is water with dissolved glucose.

Factors Affecting Transpiration Rate

Light, More=speeds up photosynthesis

Temperature, rate up as photosynthesis is controlled by enzymes 

Wind Speed, Increase rate increase as the wind evaporates the water

Humidity, Decreases the rate no concentration graident

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Leaf structure

1. Cuticle- Waterproof layer surface of the leaf

2.Upper Epidermis- Transparent layer of cells  surface of the leaf

3. Palisade Layer- Cells are tall closely packed to absorb maximum light, contain many chloroplasts

4. Spongy Layer- Capture light and makes food, have air spaces between to allow easy gas exchange.

5. Lower epidermis- Bottom Layer of the leaf Contains guard cells and stomata

6.Stomata- Tiny holes allow gas exchange

7.Guard cells- Cells open & close to control gas exchange & water loss

8.Xylem- Transport Water up the plant

9. Phloem- Transport of Sugars around the plant.

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Leaf structure pt2

Image result for leaf structure diagram gcse

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Mineral Absorption

Plant Deficiencies

Nitrates-Needed for stem growth Lack- Short plant

Phospates-Needed for root growth Lack- Small roots

Potassium- Needed to make chlorophyll Lack- Yellow leaves

Fertiliser are used to help improve plant growth as they conatin Nitrate, Phospoates and Potassium

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Food Chain

The Plant is the producer 

1st Animal is the primary consumer is a herbivore

2nd Animal is the secondary consumer is a Omnivore

3rd Animal is a Tertitary Consumer is a carnivore 

The arrows in a food chain show energy the source of energy in a food chainis the sun 

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Carbon Cycle

Image result for carbon cycle gcse

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Human Impact on Environment

  • Combustion 
  • Car pollution
  • Hunting
  • Not recycling
  • Deforestation

Goverment Agencies 

Monitor Environment -Air/Water pollution

Protect the Environment- Conservation of animals,/ plants 

Improve Environment- Farming & Building

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Intensive Farming

Fertilisers- Makes plants grow faster, increas yeld. Problems- Algae grow on top block light kill fish

Pesticides- Kill bugs, Increase Yeld. Problems Concentration Increases Toxic as it goes up the food chain.

Antibiotics- Prevent Diseases, Increase yeld. Problems- Pass on into use, resistant as it has been used too much.

Battery farming-Increase yeld, increase number they sell more money. Problems- Can't grow as big as in the open. animal currelty, Inhuman, Diseaeses Spread faster.

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Indicator Species

Image result for indicator species water pollutionImage result for indicator species AIR pollution

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Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen-fixation

Legume plants such as peas, beans and clover contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert nitrogen gas from air into a form that plants can use to make proteins. Free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria are also found in the soil. When they die the nitrogen they have fixed into their biomass is converted into ammonium.

Feeding

Animals consume plant protein, digest it using specific enzymes and absorb the free amino acids.

Production of nitrogenous waste products

Animals cannot store excess protein in their bodies. They break it down and turn it into waste products and excrete them from their bodies.

Decomposition

decomposers(some free-living bacteria and fungi) break down animal and plant proteins (from dead organisms) and nitrogenous waste products to release energy. As a result of decomposition nitrogen is released into the soil in the form of ammonium.

 Nitrification

A group of free-living soil bacteria called nitrifying bacteriaconvert ammonium into nitrates in order to obtain energy.

Denitrification

This is when bacteria in the soil convert the nitrate back into nitrogen gas which then gets released back into the atmosphere.

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