Biological aspects of neuroscience: Developmental

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List the first 4 stages of brain cell development
cell birth, cell migration, cell differentiation, cell maturation
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List steps 5-8 of brain cell development
synaptogenesis, neuronal death, synapse rearrangement, myelination
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By ... mths, nearly all of ... billion neurons have been produced (in humans)
7 mths ... 100 billion neurons
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The human newborn brain is ... less than an adult in volume/weight
a quarter
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What makes up the extra weight in an adult brain?
1) Glial cells (up to 30 yrs) 2) synaptogenesis 3) dendritic branching
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Nerve cells all start in the ... ... and ... out
NEURAL TUBE and MIGRATE out
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What cells line the neural tube?
Neural STEM cells
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Stem cells line the ... ... and the ...
Neural tube and ventricles (ventricular zone)
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Neural stem cells are special because they ....................
They have an extensive capacity for renewal
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What do neural stem cells give rise to?
Progenitor cells (or precursor cells)
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what do progenitor cells turn into?
Either neuroblasts or glioblasts
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All progenitor cells turn to neuroblasts but some then ..............
Some switch to glioblasts
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Neuroblasts become neurons, but glioblasts either become ... or ...
Astrocytes or Oliogodendrocytes
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Neurons migrate from the ... to the ...
Migrate from the ventricular zone to the surface of the cortex
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Neurons migrate along ...................
along perpendicular cells called RADIAL GLIA
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Radial glia transform into what in the adult brain?
Astrocytes
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what do astrocytes do?
Provide structural support, nourishment, carry nutrients
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What do growth cones do?
Crawl forward, dragging AXON behind.
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What do growth cones use to drag themselves with?
Threads called filopedia
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How is the cortex built?
From the inside out; the first neurons lay in the deepest layers.
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Where do the later neurons go?
They push through the layers to the top of the cortex.
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Migration: Give an example of disruption to cortical growth?
Fetal alcohol syndrome (migration is severely disrupted, leading to phys, cog, emot deficits) ie layers are disorded
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What happens in the cell differentiation stage?
5-6 weeks ASYMMETRICAL division
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What happens in asymmetrical division?
Cell divides: 1 migrates, 1 remains in ventricular zone
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Differentiation: How does a cell know what to do?
Determined by gestational age at cell division i.e. neurons born at same age migrate to PRESPCIFIED cortical layers
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Maturation: Once a neuron is in its final destination, it grows ... and ...
axons and dendrites
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Maturation: What are two ways "exuberant growth" happens?
1) Divergence and 2) Convegence
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Maturation: What is divergence?
where one cell makes MORE cells than it does in adult (extra connections will be eliminated)
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Maturation: What is convergence?
where lots of cells target one cell (but only one connection will remain)
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What is synaptogenesis?
Axons with growth cones form a synapse with other neurons or tissues
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Synaptogenesis: What do target cells do?
Release chemical, creating a GRADIENT. Growth cones orient to gradient
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What happens during the neuronal death stage?
40-75% neurons die during development. Fail to make optimal synapses.
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Synapse rearrangement: what happens if a synapse takes too little TROPHIC FACTOR?
Then it will not be stable/dendrite will die
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Synapse rearrangement: what is synesthesia?
Where stimulation in one pathway (cog/sensory) leads to automatic, involuntary experience in another
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Card 2

Front

List steps 5-8 of brain cell development

Back

synaptogenesis, neuronal death, synapse rearrangement, myelination

Card 3

Front

By ... mths, nearly all of ... billion neurons have been produced (in humans)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The human newborn brain is ... less than an adult in volume/weight

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What makes up the extra weight in an adult brain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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