BIOL243 L4

  • Created by: Katherine
  • Created on: 04-04-17 17:34
What are the negatives to fermentation?
Not alot of ATP is produced per molecule of fuel consumed, Carbon sources are only partially oxidised. They are only partially oxidised because endogenous electron acceptors are required to regenerate NAD+, allowing metabolic flux to be sustained.
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How is respiration beneficial?
It maximises the amount of ATP produced from catabolism of a carbon source
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What does respiration use?
Uses exogenous e- acceptors for NADH oxidation (classically O2), the use of an exogenous electron acceptor allows carbon sources to be oxidised completely to CO2.
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What happens to the energy liberated during e- transfer in respiration?
It is generally coupled to proton-pumping across a membrane, and the proton motive force accross the membrane is coupled to ATP production.
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What is the TCA (or Krebs) cycle?
It is the complete oxidation of carbon sources.
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What is the TCA cycle process?
Pyruvate end product of carbohydrate metabolism is decarboxylated to acetyl-CoA in a link reaction. This oxidises to CO2 through the KREBS cycle. Many amino acids are catabolised to acetyl-Co and/or Krebs intermediates.
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What does oxidation of acetyl-CoA through the Krebs cycle result in?
ATP, NADH, FADH2 Production
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How does respiration allow fatty acids to be used as an energy source?
glycerol from fatty acid chains can be converted to DHAP to be used in glycoysis.
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What is Beta oxidation?
It is a series of reactions that sequentially shorten a fatty acyl chain by 2 carbons generating NADH, FADH2 and acetyl Co-A.
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What happens to the products of beta oxidation?
FADH2 and NADH go to the electron transport chain, and Acetyl CoA goes to the Krebs cycle.
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What happens during oxidative phosphorylation?
NADH -> NAD+ + H+ + 2e-
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What are the key points o oxidative phosphoryltaion?
Membrane bound complexes catalyse e- transfer between mobile e carriers. Complexes couple energy released from e transfer to do something thermodynamically unfavourable - pump proteins across membrane. APT synthase makes good use of pmf to make ATP.
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Where is the electron transport chain found in eukaryotic cells?
Inner mitochondrial membrane
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Where is the electron transport chain found in bacterial cells?
The cytolasmic membrane
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In bacterial respiration, membranebound comlexes transfer electrons from where?
From NADH and FADH2 into the electron transport chain.
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In the electron transport chain, what functions as an oxidoreductases?
Flavin (FMN)
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What is ubiquinone?
It is a coenzyme Q10
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On the electron transport chain, what happens at complex III?
Electrons are transfered from ubiquione (II) to cytochrome c (III)
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What does complex IV do?
It transfers electrons from cytochrome c to O2
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The energy released from the electron transfer is coupled to what?
It is coupled to H+ pumping across the cytoplasmic membrane, establishing an electrical gradient across the membrane.
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What is complex V
ATP synthase
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What does complex V do in the electron transport chain?
It utilises the proton gradient to make ATP from ADP and P
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How is the electron transport chain done in aerobically grown E.coli?
dehydrogenases that catalyse e- transfer from NADH or FADH2 to Q are required. The E.coli then contains enzymes which can produce oxygen using Q.
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What are the equations for electron transport chain in aerobically grown E.coli?
Q -> Cytb562 -> Cyto -> O2, Q -> Cytb558 -> Cyt d -> O2
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What does Q stand for?
It is shorthand nomenclature for the e- carrier ubiquione.
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What are the e- acceptors during aerobic respiration?
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What are the e- acceptors during Anaerobic respiration?
NO3,SO4,CO4, Organic moelcules
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What are the e' acceptors during Fermentation
Endogenous organic molecules
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What is the enironmental significance of nitrate reduction and denitrification?
It is agriculturally detrimental, for sewage treatment a decreased fixed nitrogen load reduces algal growth.
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Energy flow to O2 is...
Exergonic because the terminal e- acceptor has a higher affinity for e than those of the e- carrying intermediates.
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What is an exergonic reaction?
It is a reaction which the free energy of the final state is less than the free energy of the initial state. Free energy is liberated during the reaction.
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What does the difference between the e- entry point and the terminal electron acceptor represent?
It shows the amount of energy that can released during electron transfer (respiration). This energy is generally released in small steps through successive e- transfers, and can be coupled to H+ pumping.
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What is an alternative strategy to fermentation for energy generation?
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What is respiration coupled to and why?
Is is coupled to electron transport chains and proton motive force across the ctoplasmic membrane.
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Which method is more efficient? Respiration or fermentation?
The greater amount of ATP can be generated from respitation makes it more effieicent.
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What are the features of M.tuberculosis?
Gram +ve, casual agent of tubercoluosis, builds a waxy protective coat of which principal component is mycolic acid. It is slow growing and has simple nutrient requirements.
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What is mycolic acid?
A complex mixture of branched chain hydrox lipids
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What are the 5 stages of primary tuberculosis?
Infection of respiratory tract, invasion and replication of alveolar macrophages, replicaton in host macrophages, immune response (antigen presentation to t cells), deposition of collagen fibres - stabilisation of tubercle.
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Why does M. tuberculosis initially replicate in macrophages?
Because it prevents the maturatin of the acidic phagoosome.
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What happens to the microbes inside the phagolysosome?
They die, through a combination of low ph, and high concentration of reactive oxygen species.
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What is secondary tuberculosis?
Bacterium breaks the stalemate: rupture of tubercule and infection spreads through lungs or disseminates to other organs (consumption).
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How do people become infected with M.tuberculosis?
It is inhavled via aerosols into the lung. It is internalized within alveolar macrophages.
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Inside nonactivated macrophages, mycobacteria what do the bacteria do?
They resist destruction. Althoguh macrophage activation by T cell dependent cytokines can overcome this resistance.
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If someone is immunodeficient, what happens?
Unrestricted growth within macrophages causes dissemination of tubercule bacilli.
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What happens is the bacteria growth is arrested but not eradicated?
The disease is preserved in latenet condition without symptoms of tuberculosis in 90-95% individuals.
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In 5-10% of cases, Mtb is replicated into macrophages, what are the symptoms of this
weight loss, pain in chest, coughing, fibosis of lungs.
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How does phagocytosis work?
chemotaxis and adherence of microbe to phagocyte, ingestion, formation of phagosome, fusion of phagosome with lysosome to form phagolysosome, digestion of ingested microbe by enzymes, formation of residual body (contains indigestible body), discharge
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Which energy metabolisms does tuberculosis use?
Initially aerobic respitration. Following formation of tubercle, anaerobic respiration
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M. tuberculosis induces...
the miE-33 locus to reprogram autophagy and host lipid metabolism.
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How does M. tuberculosis survive in macrophages?
It evades delivery to the lysosome, it promotes the accumulation of lipid bodies, as a bacterial source of nutrients.
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Card 2


How is respiration beneficial?


It maximises the amount of ATP produced from catabolism of a carbon source

Card 3


What does respiration use?


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Card 4


What happens to the energy liberated during e- transfer in respiration?


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Card 5


What is the TCA (or Krebs) cycle?


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