BIOL123 - L1

  • Created by: Katherine
  • Created on: 01-06-16 21:20
What are prions?
A protein not an organims
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What do viruses do?
Cause acute infection
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What does bacteria do?
Causes acute infection
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What do parasite do?
Cause chronic infections
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Parasites are usually...
Protists and worms
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What is parasitism?
A type of symbiosis - meaning living together
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What is parasitism?
Interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association
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What is mutualism?
Where both organims benefit e.g. bacteria in the colon
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What is commensalism?
Where one organism benefits and the other is either benefited or harmed e.g Staphylococcus
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What is parasitism?
Where one organisms benefits and the other is harmed e.g. Tuberculosis bacteria in the lung.
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What does the biological response gradient depend on?
Infecting dose, age of host, sex of hose, host genetics, nutritional status, presence of other microbes.
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What are the disease processes?
Invasion, multiplication and spread, pathogenesis
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How is invasion done?
Oral transmission, intra-uterine, inhalation, direct inoculation, sexual transmission, direct skin contact,
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What has oral transmission?
CJD (prions), Ascaris (round worm - nematode), T.solium (tape worm - cestode)
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What is intra uterine transmitted?
Toxoplasma (protsist)
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What is inhaled?
Influenza (virus)
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What relies on direct inoculation?
Prions on contaminated surgical instruments, HIV (Injections), Malaria (insect bites)
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What relies on sexual transmission?
HIV (virus), Trichomonas vaginalis (protist)
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What relies on direct skin contact?
Hookworms (roundworm - nematode), Schistosomes
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How do protists multiply?
Can cause disease following inoculation of only a few infection stages - disease severity depends on how quickly the multply.
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How do Helminths multiply?
Most cannot multiply within the body and so disease severity depends on number of infectious stages acquired by the host over time.
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What does spread depend on?
The ability of the organism to infect other part of the body.
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What is pathogenesis?
Production and development of disease
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What does pathogenesis depend on?
The number of pathogenic organisms present, the virulence of the organism, the hosts degree of resistance.
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What is part of the virulence of the organism?
Direct killing of host cells e.g. Plasmodium (malaria), blockages within host organs (plasmodium (malaria), exotoxins e.g. bacterium clostridium botulinum, activity of host immune system - immunopathology e.g Shchistosomiasis.
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How do we measure burden of disease?
Incidence, prevalence, mortality
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What is the incidence?
The number of new cases of infection occuring in a population in a defined period of time i.e. number of new cases/number at risk.
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What is the prevalence?
Total number of infected individuals in a population i.e. number of new and old cases/number at risk
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What is the mortality?
The number of deaths per annum
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Where do infectious diseases have the biggest impact?
In developing countries and low income groups
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What are the main differences between rich and poor countries with respect to cause of death?
In high income countries, generally 70% of deaths are people ages 70+. In low incomes, this figure is 20%
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How do you measure the burden of diease?
Using the DALY
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How is the DALY calculated?
By adding together the years of life lost to premature mortality and years lost to living with disability for people living with a health condition or its consequences
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What is the calculation of DALY?
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Why is DALY used?
It allows comparison to be made across a range of health problems, is used as a quantitative basis for deciding health policies and cost effectiveness of control programmes.
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What do DALY's not tell you?
The whole picture. They don't consider economic impacts that result from disease e.g. on agriculture and over all economic productivity, or school attendance and child development.
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What do DALY's not account for?
Direct cost of treatment, surveillance, and prevention measures.
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What are drug resistant pathogens?
Malaria, tuberculosis.
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Which is infectious disease spreading?
Due to movement of refugees, air travel, increase in immune deficient people, lifestyle, natural disaster, pover, environmental changes.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What do viruses do?


Cause acute infection

Card 3


What does bacteria do?


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Card 4


What do parasite do?


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Card 5


Parasites are usually...


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