BIOL243 L2

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  • Created by: Katherine
  • Created on: 03-04-17 12:48
How can metabolism be tested?
Once the bacteria goes in lactose, it produces acid and you get a colour change from red to yellow You also get gas. When it isn't produced, it stays red, rather than going brown. I
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What does an API ***** do?
It tests the metabolism for the rapid identification of clinical isolates.
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Why is differential and selective media useful?
It can be used to determine the nutrition required by the bacteria in order to group the bacteria into functional guilds.
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What do bile salts in a media do?
Inhibit Gm +ve bacteria growth.
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When using blood agar, there are 3 different types of result. What are these?
Beta-hemolysis, alpha hemolysis, gamma hemolysis.
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What is Beta hemolysis?
It is quite active, you get a clear result (you have lysis of the blood cells).
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How do you make a selective medium?
Add something that only the specific bacterium can use or add something that kills other bacteria.
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How is Mannitol Salt Agar selective?
It selects for GM +ve (high salt). With Staphylococcus mannitol fermentation occurs and the plate goes from red to yellow.
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What key elements do bacteria need?
CHNOPS
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What does CHNOPS stand for?
Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorous
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What percentage of the prokaryoticcell is dry weight?
96
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How do Autotrophs acquire carbon?
Fixation of ionorganic carbon (CO2), cyanobacteria, green and purple bacteria
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How do Heterotroph acquire bacteria?
Assimilation of organic carbon, using simple sugars (most bacteria) and complex sugars (actinomycetes and the gliding bacteria)
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How is nitrogen acquired?
Assimilation and nitrogen fixation
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What is assimilation? EXPAND
Done by most bacteria, it uses NH4, NO3, and organic N (amino acids)
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What is nitrogen fixation?
It uses N2 and is done by some cyanobacteria and actinomycetes.
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How is Phosphorous acquired?
Assimilation of PO4.
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What are the other resources required for growth?
H,O,S,Na,K,Cl,Mg,Ke, trace elements (Cu,Mn,Zn), appropriate temp, pH, salinity, electron donor and energy source.
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How can you catergorise bacteria?
By growth requirements
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What are the growth requirements that you can categorise bacteria by?
Source of energy, soruce of electrons, source of carbon
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What are the different types of bacteria in regards to source of energy?
Phototroph (light), chemotroph (chemical reactions)
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What are the different types of bacteria in regards to source of electrons
Organotroph (Organic matter), Lithotroph (inorganic compounds)
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What are the different types of bacteria in regards to source of carbon
Autotroph (inorganic C), heterotroph (organic c)
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What are the features of photosynthetic bacteria?
They are photolthoautotrophs - phototroph, lithotrophn and autotrophn.
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What is a guild?
It is a group of species that exploid the same class of environmental resources in a similar way - regarless of taxonomic position. (A population of metabolically related microorganisms)
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How many bacterial guilds are there?
7
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What are the aerobic habitat guilds?
A = Aerobic decomposers (DOC) B= Gliding bacteria
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What are the border of aerobic/anaerobic habitat guilds?
C= Nitrifying Bacteria (CO2) D- Colourless sulphur bacteria (CO2)
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What are the anaerobic habitat guilds?
E = Sulphate reducing bacteria (DOC), F = Green and Purple Sulphur Bacteria, G = Methanogeneic bacteria
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What are the features of guild A?
Use DOC for energy, carbon and source of electrons. Biggest group of bacteria. Core genus = psedomonas. There are mineralisers and a disease causing species.
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What are the features of guild B?
Use POC for energy,carbon and source of electrons. They are true composers (POC to DOC) and Mineralisers (DOC to CO2). Core genus is Cytophaga. There is no glagella and they glide onto surfaces.
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What are the features of guild E?
High level of DOC in anaerobic environments. SO4 most abundant electron acceptor in anaerobic environments. They have anaerobic respiration. Doissimilatory sulphate reduction (sulphate respiration). They are the 2nd largest bacterial guild.
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What type of bacteria are guild E?
Sulphate reducing bacteria - they have names beginning with Desulfo e.g. Desulfovibrio ect.
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What is the end product of Guild E bacteria?
H2S
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What are the features of Guild F bacteria?
Photolithoautotrophs (but anaerobic). They use sulphide as an electron source. They used infra-red light energy to fix CO2. They have sulphur granules in and out of the cells (green and purple). Anoxygenic photosynthesis.
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There are also purple and green non sulphur bacteria, what are the features?
Anaerobic, photolithoautotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic. They are highly complicated. The Chloroflexus is green and the Rhodospirillum is purple.
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What are the by products of guild D?
SO4 and H2O. If oxygen is present you get sulphate too.
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What are the features of guild D?
They are aerobic and also abundant in anaerobic envronment. The guild sits on the border of anaerobic and aerobic. They are both acid tolerant and withstand extreme environments. They oxidise iron and leach metals.
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What do Guild D benefit from?
They benefit from H2S and benefit E guild. If you stick together E,D and F, you get the sulphur cycle.
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What are the features of Guild C?
All possible transformations of N can be carried out by bacteria (Nitrification, Denitrification and Nitrogen Fixation.
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What is the nitrification equation of Nitrosomonas or Nitrosococcus?
NH4+ + (O) = NO2- + H2O
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What is the nitrification equation of Nitrobacter of Nitrococcus?
NO2- + (O) = NO3-
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Which bacteria conduct denitrification?
Microaerophilic species such as Bacillus licheniformins, Psedomonas, stutzeri, Thiobacillus denitrificans.
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What is the end product of Denitirification?
Gaseous N (N2, N2O) - This can be used by some bacteria
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What is dissimilatory nitrogeneous oxide reduction?
,...
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What is gaseous N fixed by?
'Diazotrophs' this includes some cyanobacteria.
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What is N2 reduced to?
NH4 (Catalysed by nitrogenase).
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What is anaerobic fixation conducted by? And what about aerobic fixation?
Clostridium, aerobic fixation requires specific adaptations.
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What are the features of Guild G?
Within Archaea domain. A bacterium which carries out methanogenesis. The formation of methane (Ch4). CO2 + 4H2 = CH4 + 2H2O. Acetate, methanol and methylamines do this slower (CH3COOH = CH4 + CO2. They are chemolithoautotropic and obligate anaerobes.
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What do most bacteria of guild G begin with?
Methano.
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Card 2

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What does an API ***** do?

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It tests the metabolism for the rapid identification of clinical isolates.

Card 3

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Why is differential and selective media useful?

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Card 4

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What do bile salts in a media do?

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Card 5

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When using blood agar, there are 3 different types of result. What are these?

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