biodiversity, classification, evolution and conservation

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define species richness
the number of species present in a habitat
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define species evenness
measure of the relative abundance of each species in an area
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what does simpson's index measure?
the probability that two individuals will belong to the same species
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if the value for Simpsons index is high what does it mean for that area?
it has a high biodiversity, species richness and evenness
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how do you estimate the total population using mark and recapture method?
times the number of species in each capture and divide it by the number of marked species in second capture
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what are the different methods of sampling?
quadrants, pit fall trap, sweep nets, sea nets, stout stick, Tull green funnel
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define species
a group of organisms witch can interbreed to produce fertile offspring
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what characteristics do a species share?
similar anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, behavior
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define habitat
an ecological/environmental area inhabited by individuals from a species
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what are biotic factors?
food, other organisms (preditors)
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what are abiotic factors?
soil, climate, water
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define biodiversity
the range of organisms found in an area
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why can we only estimate the number of species on the planet?
constantly discovering more as technology advances, species become extinct, evolution and speciation is continuouse
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define classification
the process of sorting living organisms into groups based on their similarities and differences
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why do we classify organisms?
to understand evolutionary relationships, convenience, easier to identify organisms
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what is taxonomy?
the study of classification
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what is the taxonomic hierarchy?
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
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what are the tree domains?
Eukaryote, bacteria, archaea
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who came up with the domains and when?
carl woese 1990
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what makes archea more like Eukaryotas than bacteria?
RNA polymase ore similar to eukaryotes, histone proteins, differn't membrane and flagella structure to bacteria,
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what is the system for naming organisms?
Binomial Nomenclature (genus and species)
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what are the 5 kingdoms?
Prokaryotes, protozoa, fungi, plantae, animalia
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what are the characteristics of prokaryotes?
no nucleus or membrane bound organelles, circular DNA, unicellular, often have flagella
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what does autotrophic mean?
create synthesis own food
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what does heterotrophic mean?
an organism that can not synthesis own food
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what are the characteristics of protozoa?
membrane bound organells and nucleus, most are unicellular, some have cilia or undulipodium, mos have cell walls
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what does saprophytic mean?
organisms which obtain nutrients from dead organic matte
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what are the characteristics of fungi?
.
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what are the characteristics of plantae?
cell wall made of cellulose, multicellular, autotrophic
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what is the modern way of deciding witch groups a species belongs to?
cytochrome C (protein used in receptors) sequence of amino acids differ, DNA or RNA bases, enzymes (e.g RNA polymerase)
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what are the different types of variation?
continuous or discontinuous (distinct catogries)
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what are the causes in variation?
mutations in gene (allels), environmental factors
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what where Darwin's 4 observations?
parents produce more offsping then needed to survive, populations tend to remain constant, off spring look similar to parents, no two individuals look the same
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what is Speciation?
if a species or members of species evolved to be no longer recognizable to ancestors, they are a new species
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what evidence is there for evolution?
pesticide and drug resistance, fossils, Molecular
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what are the different approaches to conservation?
institu involves conservation of natural habitat, and exstitu is controlled habitats away from natural environments
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what are the reasons for conserving species?
economical (tourism, medicines, agriculture may rely on species), maintain ecosystem, ethical reasons (religious significance, value more than human?), aesthetic purposes (mental health quality of life)
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how does climate change effect habitats and species?
animals may no longer be adapted to environment (selective pressure) if water levels and temperature change, they may have to adapt or migrate. this can affect agriculture or
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define species evenness

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measure of the relative abundance of each species in an area

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what does simpson's index measure?

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Card 4

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if the value for Simpsons index is high what does it mean for that area?

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Card 5

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how do you estimate the total population using mark and recapture method?

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