Biodiversity and Evolution

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  • Biodiversity and Evolution
    • Species: group of individual organisms very similar in appearance, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and genetics, whose members are able to interbreed freely and produce fertile offspring.
    • Habitat: Place where an organism lives.
    • Biodiversity: variety of life. Range of organisms found.
      • Species richness: number of species present in the area
      • Species evenness: Measure of abundance of individuals in each species.
      • Measured by Simpson's index of biodiversity.
    • Classification: Process of sorting living things into groups. Natural classification groups according to how closely related they are. It reflects evolutionary relationships
      • Taxonomy: study of principles of classification.
        • Domain Kingdom Phylum  Class     Order    Family Genus Species
          • Binomial System uses two names to identify individual. Fist name is genus and second is species.
            • Dichotomous key: yes or no, follow and find specimen name according to properties
      • Phylogeny: Study of evolutionary relationships between organsims
      • Recent Classifcation
        • Cytochrome C and DNA
    • 5 kingdoms
      • Prokaryotes: have no nucleus.
      • Protoctists: All organisms that don't fit into other 4 kingdoms
      • Fungi: organisms that are mostly saprophytic
      • Plants: multicellular organisms gaining nutrition from photsynthesis
      • Animals: heterotrophic multicellular eukaryotes
    • Variation: presence of variety between individuals
      • Genetic variation: caused by differences in genes and combination of alleles
      • Continuous variation: full range of intermediate phenotypes (height)
      • Discontinuous variation: Discrete groups with no intermediates (blood groups)
    • Adaptation : Feature that enhances survival
    • Natural Selection: Selection by the environment of particular individuals with certain variations will survive and continue to reproduce
      • Speciation: Formation of new species
      • Selection Pressure: External pressure that drives evolution in certain direction.
    • Conservation
      • If not put in place can lead to extinction
      • Ex-situ: Conserving an endangered species out of environment.
      • In-situ: Minimise human impact on environment but protecting it. Keeping in normal environment
    • International Co-operation
      • CITES: convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
      • Convention on Biological Diversity
      • Environmental impact Assessment: Procedure to assess the likely significant effects that a proposed development may have on habitat
  • Xerophytic plants: adapted to living in v. dry conditions
    • Adaptation : Feature that enhances survival


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