Behaviour MCQs

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Most contemporary studies of associative learning are conducted using?
Dogs
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The concept of 'reflex action' was first proposed by?
Descartes
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The british empiricists
Were essentially associationist philosophers, saw the mind as a blank state, recognised the importance of temporal contiguity
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According to Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory
Modern day animals have a common ancestory
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Applying Lloyd Morgan's canon we might assume that a pet dog could learn to open a gate by?
Trial and Error
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Thorndike proposed the law of effect which state that?
Satisfaction strengthens S-R associations
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In John Watson's famous study of Little Albert, the training CS was
A white rat
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Excitatory conditioning can be measured?
Key pecking a stimulus light
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Skinner focused on the reflexive response
At behavioural S-R level
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The rate of lever pressing for water is best explained by
Thirst
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Connectionism is based?
Simple associationss
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Crows learn to associate the distinctive visual appearance of Whelk shells with food through
Trial and learning, classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning
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the most obvious difference between classical and instrumental conditioning is
Whether the first event in the association is a stimulus or response
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Intstrumental learning studies have shown that:
Autoshaping is seen when the learning reaches asympote
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You'll become ill after eating roast chick, select the conditioned stimulus from the following?
Smell of the roast chicken
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In studies of passive avoidance
The rat must withhold a designated response
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In studies of active avoidance
the rat must make a designated response
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Avoidance learning has been traditionally studied in a ?
Shuttle box
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According to Bolle's theory of avoidance
Learning is based on species-species defence reactions by classical conditioning animals to response to stimulus associated with pain, freezing is a good basis for passive avoidance
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According to the bolles and Fanselow model fear and pain
Fear lowers the pain threshold
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When animals are faced with a variety of possible avoidance responses they learn best when the required response is
Run away
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After a couple of signalled shocks an animal may response so efficiently to the CS that is never gets another shock, why doesnt conditioned fear extinguish?
it makes evolutionary sense for fear to persist, because feedback from the signal will always be sufficient to reinstate the fear, because feedback from making the avoidance response provides the animal with a conditioned inhibitor
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The two factors in the two factor theory of avoidance learning are?
Pavlovian fear conditioning and reinforcement through fear reduction
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Which of the following experimental groups were found to learn best in the shuttle box in Kamin's 1956 experiment?
Standard escape - avoidance: Rat shuttling response avoided or terminated shock and terminated buzzer
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Two factor theory has the advantage that it can explain
Why the importance of the warning signal termination deprends on the response
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Conditioned inhibition provides the best explanation of what?
how conditioned fear can be protected fr om extinction
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What is learned helplessness?
Reduction in later avoidance learning produced by exposure to inescapable shock
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In Pavlov's famous experiment the conditioned stimulus was the?
Tone
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The two phases of sensory preconditioning experiment could do what?
Take the form of phase 1; Tone -- light Phase 2: Light to food
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What are good measures of associative learning performance include?
Eye blinking
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Which of the following methods of presenting CS and US typically produce the most effect learning?
Delay conditioning
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Experiments on taste aversion show that temporal contiguity is what?
Not necessary for learning
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Cue competition based on stimulus salience is known as what?
Overshadowing
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Latent inhiition is the reduction in later learning produced by?
Stimulus pre-exposure
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Conditioned inhibition procedures to produce what?
Inhibitory learning require on the omission of the otherwise expected US in a second stage of the experiment
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Which of the following schedules results is the best excitatory learning?
Positive contingency
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Blocking experiment phases
Phase 1 Noise --> Shock; Phase 2 (light and Noise) --> shock
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Procedurally the experimental design used to demonstrate conditioned inhibition is a different from what?
used to show blocking because in the first phase a CS is paired with a US
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In a relative validity experiment, an uncorrelated group might be exposed to
: AX  US; AX  No US, BX  US, BX  No US
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What is the correlated group?
AX --> US, AX--> US, BX--> No US, BX --> No US
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People taking addictive drugs are more likely to develop a conditioned habit set of by being in the same room if what?
If a distinctive odour was present on those occasions they did do the drug
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Experiments on taste aversion learning show that?
animals can associate taste with illness over long trace intervals
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Who was blocking first demonstrated by?
Kamin
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Rescorla-Wagner (1972) theory of associative theory
The magnitude of the US is only important determint of the rate of new learning
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Typical learning curve?
Most rapid gains are made early in conditioning, learning then levels off
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The strength of the CS-US association is represented by?
V
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The magnitude of the US is represented as upside down ?
Y
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Wagner's modification of Rescorla Wagner was based on what?
Ideas that CS should also be suprising, orienting responses suggest attention to novelty, habituation suggests that familiar stimuli should be ignored
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What was the Mackintosh theory based on?
Experimental observations suggesting that associability is a fixed factor dependent on stimulus intensity
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In the Mackintosh Turner design, the point of phase is to what?
Reduce conditioning to the noise CS used in phase 1
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Which of the following schedules has been shown to best maintain orienting reactions?
Partial reinforcement
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Pearce-Hall (1980) theory of associative learning?
Animals should not waste time processing events with known consequences
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The outcome of phase 1 training should be establish the CS to be used in phase 2 as what?
Reliable predictor
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Theories of associative learning don't necessarily apply what?
Straightforwardly to instrumental because they make opposing predictions because of differing emphases on CS factor
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What is the most topical concept derived from learning theory is?
Stimulus substitution
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A number of symptoms of schizophrenia have been reproduced under controlled conditions by?
Repeated administration of amphetamine
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Latent inhibition is best described as ?
Reduced learning following prior exposure of the CS
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Latent inhibition procedures used in rodents have?
Usually used the conditioned inhibition response
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the original latent inhibition procedure devised for testing human participants used:
counter increment as the US, nonsense syllables as the masking, white noise as the CS
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The cognitive impairment described cases of schizophrenia include?
: Awareness of automatic processes normally carried out below the level of consciousness
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Kumari et al (1999)
reported that haloperidol effects on latent inhibition depend on participants’ levels of psychoticisim
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Latent inhibition has been found to be reduced by what?
Haloperidol in both humans and rats
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Nelson et al (2011)
reported that amphetamine injections in nucleus accumbens core reduced latent inhibition
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Which area of the frontal cortex is most strongly connected with nucleus accumbens shell?
Infralimbic
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An individual who is high in schizotype might be expected to report that they have little empathy with other and cant be espected to?
Read their minds
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Latent inihibition can be described as?
Translational and partly validated
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The concept of 'reflex action' was first proposed by?

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Descartes

Card 3

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The british empiricists

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Card 4

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According to Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory

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Card 5

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Applying Lloyd Morgan's canon we might assume that a pet dog could learn to open a gate by?

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