BCP7 Combined Science GCSE

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Describe Representational Models
Simplified descriptions or pictures of whats going on in real life. Can be used to explain trends down groups in the periodic table
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Describe a Spatial Model
Represents physical space and the position of objects within it.
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Describe a Descriptive Model
Used to describe how things work
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Describe a Mathematical Model
Use patterns found in data from past events to predict what might happen in the future. Requires a lot of calculations but a lot of them are now computational
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Describe a Computational Model
Mathematical models that use computers which often involve simulations of complex real life processes
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What are the pros and cons of using a Model?
It allows scientists to investigate real life situations more quickly but they may have limitations on what they can explain or predict, and may have ethical or practical limitations.
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Define a peer-reviewed journal
where other scientists check results and scientific explanations beforethe journal is published.
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Define a hypothesis
A tentative explanation which takes into account all observations and other available data
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What DECREASES the confidence in a hypothesis?
If the experimental evidence doesnt fit with the hypothesis, and it might be wrong
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What INCREASES the confidence in a hypothesis?
If evidenvce from a well-conducted experiment backs up a prediction,
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Technology has advanced which means our ability to test explanations has improved. How?
It allows us to make new observations nd find new evidence, and can mean scientists can modify their ideas and hypothesis
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Describe what its meant when an experiment is repeatable
So if the SAME PERSON does the experiment again using the same methods and equipment, they'll get similar results
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Describe what its mean when an experiment is Reproducible
That if SOMEONE ELSE does the experiment, or does a differen method or piece of equipment, the results will be SIMILAR>
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Descrie what its means when an experiment is Valid
When an experiement is both repeatable AND reproducible, AND they answer the orginal question
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Define an Independant Variable
The variable you change
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Define a Dependant Variable
The variable you measure
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Define a Control Variable
Variables you keep the same
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Describe a Control Experiment and why you would use it
An experiement thats kept under the same conditions as the rest of the investigation, but doesnt have anything done to it. Its used so you can see what happens if you dont change anything at all
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Define a Hazard
Something that can potentially cause harm
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Give Examples of Hazards and what to do to prevent it
Microorganisms, CHemicals, Fire, Electricity. Identify hazards you may encounter then thing of ways to reduce the risk of it happening
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Why isnt small sample data as good as large sample data?
A sample should represent a whole population, and small sample cant do thatand it would be harder to spot any outliers
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What are trial runs and what are they used for?
A quick version of your experiment- they can be used to figure out the range of varibale values used in the proper experment and figure out the intervals between values
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Describe Accurate data/results
Those really close to the true answer
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What does the accuracy of data depend on?
The method you use and how accurately you measure
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Describe a Precise result
Ones where data is all really close to the mean of your repeated result
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Define a Resolution
The smallest change a measuring instrument can detect
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Why would you need to calibrate equipment and how?
By measuring a known value, if you see a difference between a measured and known value, you can use this to correct inaccuracy in the equipment,
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Define a Random error.
Unpredictable differences caused by things like human errors in measuring
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How can you reduce random errors?
Take repeated readings and finding the mean
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Define a Systematic Error
If a measurement is wrong by the same amount every time
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Define Zero Error
If a systematic error is caused by using equipment that isnt set to zero properly (mass balance not set to zero)
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Define an Outlier
If you get a results that doesnt fit in with the others at all
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What is meant when a variable is categoric or discrete
Categoric: Comes in distinct categories Discrete: Data can be counted in chunks where theres no inbetween value
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What is meant when a variable is continuous
when numerical data can have any value within a range
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What are the rules for drawing bar charts
Include a key, Scale should be linear and equal, Label Axes, Leave a gap between categories, Draw big
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What are the rules for drawing Graphs
Use sensible scale on axes, Dependant Variable on y-axis, Independent on x-axis, use sharp pencil, draw big
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What does the gradient on a graph tell you about data?
How quickly the dependent variable changes if you change the independant varible
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How can the line of best fit be useed to interpolate data?
You can find values inbetween the values you recorded.
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WHat would you need to do to draw a conclusion correctly?
Use your results to JUSTIFY your conclusion, and make sure it refers back to the HYPOTHESIS and whether the data supports it or not and if it INCREASES or DECREASES confidence. Can also make further predictions
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Why does a correlation NOT mean the factor causes the outcome?
-Two things can show a correlation purely due to chance, Repetable, Reproducable data must be collectd first. -Another factor may link a factor and its outcome -A factor may make an outcome more likely but not inevitable
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Whats an Uncertainty
THe amount of error your measurements might have
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Equation for Uncertainty of a mean result
Uncertainty = Range % 2
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What will cause a result to be more uncertain?
If there is a large range; it shows the results are less precise.
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What can reduce Uncertainty ?
Measuring a greater amount of a product
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Define an Evaluation
A critical analysis of a whole investigation including the data you obtained
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What needs to be considered when developing new technology?
How great the benefit is, compared to the number of people who will be put at risk and how great the risk might be
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How can you estimate the size of a risk if it happens?
By basing it on how many times something happens in a sample over a given period of time.
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What needs to be considered when making desicions about activities involving hazards ?
The chance of the hazard causing harm and how serious the consequences would be if it did
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Why are peoples perception of risk not always accurate?
People tend to view familiar activities as low risk and unfamiliar activites as high risk, even if its not the case
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What desicions do people make when it comes to risks?
People are more willing to accept a risk if they choose to do it and its minor and short lived, but they wont if its imposed on them and if a major accident may follow
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How can scientists Communicate scientific discoveries?
Through the media
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What are Cons to talking about scientific discoveries through the media?
It can be biased, Oversimplified, Inaccurate, Making it open to MISINTERPRETATION
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What economical issues are placed with scientific developments?
Society cant always afford to do thngs scientists recommend
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What Personal Issues may arise with scientific developments?
Some desicions may affect individuals
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What Social Issues are there with scientific developments?
Desicions based on scientific evidence may affect people and their lifestyle
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What Environmental Issues are brought up with scientific developments ?
Human activity often affects the natural environment, even if it reduces climate change
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Whats a commonly used arguement made when making decisions involvng ethical dilemmas?
That the right decision is the one that brings the greatest benefit to the most people.
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Card 2


Describe a Spatial Model


Represents physical space and the position of objects within it.

Card 3


Describe a Descriptive Model


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Card 4


Describe a Mathematical Model


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Card 5


Describe a Computational Model


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