B6 flashcards

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Hunaina
  • Created on: 11-06-14 01:20
Explain how the parts of bacterial cells are related to their function
flagellum for movement, cell wall to maintain shape and stop bursting, loop of DNA for control and replication, capsule around cell wall is slimy and protective against antiseptics
1 of 30
Describe the factors that affect the growth rate of yeast
ph, temperature (rten degrees rise doubles the rate of growth), availability of food, amount of waste products
2 of 30
Describe how the transmission of disease can be prevented
hygiene prevents microbes, correct water treatments prevent cholera, physical barriers prevent microbes that need direct contact, air borne microbes are prevented by correct use of paper tissues and isolation of patients
3 of 30
Describe how antibodies and antiseptics can be used int the control of disease
Antispetics kill microbes outside the body and prevent entry, Antibodies kill microbes inside the body once entered however they do not work on viruses
4 of 30
Describe the main stages of yogurt making
sterilization, pasteurization (78 degrees), cooling and incubation with culture of bacteria, sampling or flavoring or packaging
5 of 30
Describe the main stages in brewing beer or wine
sugar extraction, yeast added, fermentation (no oxygen), clarification and removal of clear liquid (yeast sediment is removed), pasteurization, bottles
6 of 30
Describe the advantages of using bio-fuels rather than fossil fuels
alternative to fossil fuels which are running out, waste makes no net increase in greenhouse gas levels, no particulates released when burnt
7 of 30
How are bio-gas and gasohol produced?
fermentation of carbohydrates in organic waste by bacteria- mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide
8 of 30
Describe experiments to analyse the composition of soil samples
humus content can be found by burning of humus content with Bunsen burner, air content is found by seeing how much water is needed to fill the air spaces, water content can be found by heating the soil to evaporate the water
9 of 30
Why are earthworms important in maintaining the soil structure and fertility>
bury material for decomposition by bacteria/fungi, aerate and drain the soil, mix up soil layers, neutralise acid soil
10 of 30
What are the advantages of living in water?
no risk of water shortage and dehydration, temperature varies less, water provides support, waste products are easily disposed
11 of 30
What are the causes of eutrophication?
sewage and fertilizers run off- rapid growth of algae- all die and decay- oxygen is used up- animals die as they cannot respire
12 of 30
Describe the range of enzymes that are used in biological washing powders
amylase digest carbohydrates, lipase remove fatty stains, protease digest proteins
13 of 30
How can enzymes be immobilized?
mixing with alginate, dropping the mixture into calcium chloride soulution
14 of 30
Describe the main stages of genetic engineering
identifying and removing one gene, cutting open the DNA in another organism, inserting the gene into the DNA, making sure the gene works in the transgenic organism
15 of 30
Explain why bacteria are so successful
they can survive in enormous different range of energy sources (photosynthesis, dead material, chemical reactions, live in wide range of habitats (extreme temperatures), take in organic nutrients some make their own food
16 of 30
Explain how viruses reproduce
attachment onto specific host cell, insertion of genetic material into host cell, gene causes host to make new viruses, host cell splits open releasing the new virus
17 of 30
Explain the precautions that can be taken to prevent the spread of antibiotic disease
-doctors only prescribe when necessary, this reduces chance of antibiotic resistant bacteria becoming the most common strain, -advice patients to complete the course so partially resistant bacteria are killed
18 of 30
What is the action of Lactobacillus in yogurt production?
breakdown lactose in milk into lactic acid which makes the yogurt taste acidic
19 of 30
Explain the effects of various conditions on the rate of fermentation of yeast
temperature, presence and absence of oxygen
20 of 30
Explain some of the problems that have been produced by the cultivation of biofuels
large range of bacteria are needed as waste has many different materials, less energy is released then natural gas as it contains less methane, if methane levels drop and oxygen is mixed it becomes explosive
21 of 30
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using bio-gas?
A: alternative fuel so reduces fuel consumption, no overall increase to greenhouse gas levels, no particulates released D: habitat loss as large areas of land is needed to grow, extinction, less land for crops, land cleared so more decaying wood,
22 of 30
Explain the results of soil experiment on air content and permiabiliy
large particles in soil means that the air content and permeability is high, large amounts oh humus will hold more water and air
23 of 30
Explain why aeration and and draining will improve soil
earthworms will allow organisms to respire aerobically
24 of 30
Explain the problems of water balances caused by osmosis
takes in or loose to much water depending on its surroundings
25 of 30
Why is there such a large variety of producers in marine food chains?
light levels vary with deepness so some produces use photsynthesis to produce energy and some bacteria use chemo-synthesis (energy obtained from chemical reaction)
26 of 30
How do biological washing powders work?
enzymes break down stains into small soluble products that wash off the fabrric- enzymes are ph sensitive so may not work in some regions of the country (acid/alkaline water), they cause allergies
27 of 30
What are the symptoms of lactose intolerance?
they cannot produce the enzyme lactase- so bacteria in the gut ferment lactose which produces diarrhea and wind
28 of 30
What is the action of enzyme in genetic engineering?
restriction enzymes cut open DNA, they leave several unparied bases on the cut end, ligase enzymes join DNA strands because the unpaired bases can be joined by complementary base pairing
29 of 30
Describe how to produce a DNA print
extraction DNA from a sample (blood), restriction enzymes cut up a DNA, electrophoresis separates the fragments, this makes the fragment visible using a radioactive probe
30 of 30

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the factors that affect the growth rate of yeast

Back

ph, temperature (rten degrees rise doubles the rate of growth), availability of food, amount of waste products

Card 3

Front

Describe how the transmission of disease can be prevented

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe how antibodies and antiseptics can be used int the control of disease

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the main stages of yogurt making

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all all topics resources »