B3f: Growth and Development

The growth of organisms can be measured in different ways. Whilst there are similarities in the patterns of growth and development in all organisms there are some major variations between plants and animals. This item explores some of these differences. Research into human stem cells and cancer provides opportunities to discuss how and why decisions about science are made and the related ethical issues. These discussions can also provide the opportunity to show that there are some questions that science cannot currently answer.

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What is the function of a vacuole? (plant cell)
Contains cell sap, and provides support.
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What is the function of a cell wall? (plant cell)
Made of cellulose and provides support.
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Describe how to make a stained slide of an onion cell.
Cut open an onion, Use forceps to peel a thin layer of epidermis from the inside, Lay the layer of epidermis on a microscope slide, Add a drop of iodine solution to the layer, Carefully place a cover slip over the layer.
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What is the use of adding iodine solution when making a stained slide of an onion cell.
The iodine solution stains starch in the cells blue-black, making the cell features easier to see.
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Which cell is smaller? Animal, Bacteria or Plant?
Bacteria.
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In which three ways can growth be measured?
Wet mass, Dry mass and height?
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What does growth involve?
cell division followed by cells becoming specialised.
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What is the process of cells becoming specialised called?
Differentiation.
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How do plants and animals grow differently?
Animals grow in the early stages of their life, whereas plants grow continually.
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Where does cell division happen in an animals?
In most tissues
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Where does cell division happen in a plant?
Mainly at meristems – found at the tips of shoots and roots
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Name three things that a bacteria cell lacks.
A nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria.
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How is DNA located in a bacteria cell?
The DNA in bacterial cells is arranged in a single circular strand in the cytoplasm.
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Which measurement of growth is the best?
Dry mass.
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Talk about the growth of individual parts of an organism, compared to the whole organism.
Some parts of an organism may grow at a different rate than the growth rate of the whole organism. For example, the head of a human foetus in the womb grows faster than the rest of the body for the first two months.
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When are the two phases of rapid growth?
Just after birth, and adolescence.
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What does measuring height involve?
Measuring the height of a plant or animal
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What does measuring dry mass involve?
Dry out the organism before weighing it
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What does measuring wet mass involve?
Weigh the the plant and and animals
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What is the advantage of using height to measure an organism?
Easy to measure
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What is the advantage of using wet mass to measure an organism?
Easy to measure
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What is the advantage of using dry mass to measure an organism?
It's not affected by the amount of water in a plant or animal or how much an organism has eaten
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What is the disadvantage of using height to measure an organism?
It doesn't tell you about changes in width, diameter, number of branches ect.
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What is the disadvantage of using wet mass to measure an organism?
Wet mess is very changeable. For example, a plant will be heavier if it's recently rained because it will have absorbed lots of water. Animals will be heavier if they've just eaten or if they've got a full bladder.
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What is the disadvantage of using dry mass to measure an organism?
You have to kill the organism to work it out. This might be okay for an area of grass, but it's not so good if you want to know the dry mass of a person.
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What are undifferentiated cells called?
Stem cells
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Complete the sentence: Stem cells can develop into different....(3)
Cells, tissues, organs.
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What can stem cells be obtained from?
Embryonic tissue.
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What are the negative issue is arising from stem cell research?
They feel that human embryos shouldn't be used for experiments since each one is potential human life.
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What are the positive issues arising from stem cell research?
Some think curing patients who already exist and are suffering is more important than the rights of embryos. Also unwanted embryos are common from fertility clinics, which, if they weren't used for research, would probably be thrown away too.
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What are the two types of stem cells?
Embryonic and Adult.
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Talk about adult stem cells and their uses.
People with blood disorders (leukaemia and sickle cell anaemia) can be cured by bone marrow transplants. Bone marrow contains adult stem cells that turn into new blood cells to replace faulty old ones.
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Talk about embryonic stem cells and their uses.
Very early human embryos contain lots of stem cells.Scientists can extract these cells&grow them.They think they may eventually be able to grow tissues to treat medical conditions.
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Talk about what the growing of embryonic stem cells can be used to treat.(2) What is this known as?
Nerve cells for brain damage and spinal injuries, and skin cells for skin grafts. This is known as skin therapy.
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Explain why plant(P) growth differs from animal (A) growth.(4)
A tend 2 grow 2 a finite size but many P grow continuously,P cell division is mainly restricted 2 meristems,cell enlargement is main method which P gain height&many P cells retain the ability 2 differentiate but most A cells lose it at an early age
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Card 2

Front

What is the function of a cell wall? (plant cell)

Back

Made of cellulose and provides support.

Card 3

Front

Describe how to make a stained slide of an onion cell.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the use of adding iodine solution when making a stained slide of an onion cell.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which cell is smaller? Animal, Bacteria or Plant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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