B3 Unit 3 AQA Biology

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What is osmosis?
The movement of water through diffusion
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What type of membrane is required for osmosis?
A partially permeable membrane
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Does it require energy?
No, it doesn't require energy
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What is active transport?
Uses energy to move molecules across a partially permeable membrane against the concentration gradient
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How does it work?
The protein grabs hold of a molecule and then rotates to face inside the cell using energy. The molecule is then released into the cell. It then uses energy again to rotate back to the outside
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What do sport drinks contain?
Mineral ions, Glucose and Water
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When are sports drinks actually useful?
After a very intense workout as sweat causes a great loss of water and mineral ions. Glucose is also used in respiration. Otherwise, water can be as effective during regular exercise
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If the concentration of the sports drink matches the body fluids, what is the solution called?
Isotonic
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Why do large organisms have exchange surfaces?
To obtain all the food and oxygen to keep the organism alive
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What exchange are the lungs used for?
Gaseous Exchange
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What is breathing in and out called?
Ventilation
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What is the small intestine lined with?
Villi
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What are villi?
Hair like structures inside lining of small intestine. They have thin walls with many capillaries close to them, making it easier for diffusion to happen. Sometimes active transport it used
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What are stomata?
Tiny holes at the bottom of the leaf that allow gas to move in and out of the plant. Controlled by guard cells
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When do guard cells close?
When too much water is being lost
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Where are ions obtained from in plants?
Roots obtain ions from soil
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What is transpiration?
Evaporation of water through the stomata in a leaf
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What is a double circulation system?
A system that pumps blood twice in a cycle. Once to the lungs and once to the body in large animals
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Name the 4 chambers of the heart
Right and left atria, right and left ventricles
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Where does the pulmonary vein deliver blood to?
Left atrium
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Which blood vessel delivers blood to the right atrium?
Vena cava
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What blood vessel does the right ventricle deliver blood to?
Pulmonary artery
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What blood vessel does the left ventricle deliver blood to?
Aorta
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What do valves do?
Prevent backflow of blood
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The pulmonary artery carries blood to...
The lungs to be oxygenated
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The aorta carries blood to...
the rest of the body
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Arteries...
Have thick walls containing elastic tissue and muscle with a small lumen. They carry blood away from the heart
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Capillaries...
are one cell thick and carry blood through the organs
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Veins...
have a large lumen and valves to prevent backflow. They carry blood to the heart
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What does blood contain?
White and red blood cells, platelets and plasma
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What does plasma transport?
Waste, soluble products of digestion and urea
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Red blood cells...
are bionconcave discs with no nucleus and contain haemoglobin
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White blood cells...
are part of the body's defence system
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Platelets...
are fragments of cells that clot blood at the site of a wound
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What does oxygen + haemoglobin form?
Oxyhaemoglobin
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Xylem is...
a plant tissue used to transport water and minerals up a plant
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Phloem is...
a plant tissue that carries sugar from leaves to rest of plant
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What is homeostasis?
Keeping all the of the internal conditions of the body at optimum level
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What type of membrane is required for osmosis?

Back

A partially permeable membrane

Card 3

Front

Does it require energy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is active transport?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How does it work?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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