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Biology 3

Biology 3

Gas and solute exchange

Substances are moved to where they are needed by diffusion, osmosis and active transport.

Diffusion is where a particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of low
concentration. E.g. when a perfume has been sprayed from one side…

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Biology 3

The air breathed in goes through trachea. This splits into two tubes called bronchi. They are
continously split into smaller tubes bronchioles that finally end to small bags called alveoli
where gas exchange happens.

Breathing in

Intercostals muscles and diaphragm contract

Thorax volume increases

This decreases the pressure,…

Page 3

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Biology 3

3. This gives a big surface area for absorbing water and minerals. Most of the mineral and
water come from the root hairs

4. They take in mineral using active transport

5. The concentration in the root hair is higher than in the soil. So the mineral are…

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Biology 3

Red blood cells



Red blood cells carry oxygen

Red blood cells have a doughnut shape to give a large surface area for absorbing oxygen

They don't have a nucleus- this allows more oxygen

They contain a substance called haemoglobin. This substance combines with oxygen to make…

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Biology 3

Most glucose from food is stored as glycogen. It mainly stored in the liver. During vigorous exercise
more glucose is used up, if the muscles don't get the energy and they keep contracting they get
tired and produce lactic acid...

Anaerobic respiration is used if there's not enough…

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Biology 3

People with kidney failure are kept alive with dialysis treatment or have a kidney transplant

Dialysis machine filter the blood

In a dialysis machine the person's blood flows alongside a selectively permeable barrier surrounding
by dialysis fluid. It's permeable to things like ions and waste substances but not…

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Biology 3

A culture of bacteria is added to milk

The bacterium produces solids curds in the milk

The curds were separated from the liquid whey

More bacteria is add to the curds and the whole lot is left to ripen

Mould are added to give colour and taste


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Biology 3

The malted grains are mashed up and water is added to produce a surgery solution with lots
of bits in it. Then this is sieved to remove the bits

Hops are added to the mixture to give the beer its bitter flavour

The surgery solution is then fermented…

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Biology 3

Fuels from microorganisms

1. Fuel can be made by fermentation of natural products and lucky enough waste products

2. Fermentation is when bacteria or yeast breaks down sugars by anaerobic respiration

3. Ethanol is made by anaerobic fermentation of sugar

4. Yeast can make ethanol when they break…

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Biology 3

3. An outlet for biogas to be piped to where it's needed

Four factors to consider when designing a generator:

Cost: Continuous generators are more expensive as they are continuously fed in waste and
mechanically removed waste

Convinces: batch generator are less convenient as they have to be…


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