B3 Flashcards

  • Created by: Madisonxo
  • Created on: 25-04-17 21:24
What does cell metabolism lead to?
A build up of waste products in the blood such as carbon dioxide and urea
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How is urea produced?
The breakdown of excess amino acids in the liver
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What removes urea from the blood?
The kidneys
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What does the renal artery do?
Bring blood to the kidneys
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What does the renal vein do?
Take blood from the kidneys
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What do the kidneys do?
Remove urea, adjust ion levels in the blood, adjust the water content of the blood
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What do the ureters do?
Move urine from the kidneys to the bladder
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What does the bladder do?
Store urine
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What does the urethra do?
Remove urine from the body
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How can kidney failure be treated?
Kidney dialysis and organ donation
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How does kidney dialysis work?
Blood is pumped through a dialysis machine. Blood is pumped across a selectively permeable barrier so only urea and ions leave the blood
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What is the problem with organ transplants for kidney failure?
Body will attack the kidney with its immune system - rejection
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What is the glomerulus?
A network of blood capillaries in the kidney
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What does the Bowman's capsule do?
Filter the blood plasma in the glomerulus under pressure - ultrafiltration through tiny holes
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What occurs at the proximal convoluted tubule?
Selective reabsorption of glucose and reabsorption of water
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What does the loop of Henlé do?
Looped section of nephron that helps with osmoregulation
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What does the collecting duct do?
It transports the remaining substances (urine) from the nephrons to the ureters
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Where does reabsorption of water occur in the nephron?
Proximal convoluted tubule, collecting duct
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How is excess water removed from the body?
In urine
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What controls the amount of water that is reabsorbed?
ADH
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What effect does a high amount of ADH have?
More water is reabsorbed
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What produces ADH?
The pituitary gland
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How is ADH production controlled?
Negative feedback
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What controls the menstrual cycle?
The hormones oestrogen and progesterone
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What/When is menstruation?
The breaking down of the uterus lining, it starts on day 1
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When is the uterus lining built up?
Day 4 to 14
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What/When is ovulation?
The release of an egg from the ovary at day 14
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Why is the uterus lining maintained if an egg is fertilised?
The menstrual cycle stops and allows an embryo to embed itself in the uterus and begin to develop
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What does FSH do?
Stimulate the maturation of the follicles which stimulates oestrogen production
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What is oestrogen responsible for?
The repair of the uterus wall
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What do high levels of oestrogen cause?
A surge in LH which causes ovulation
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What does the corpus lutem secrete?
Progesterone
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What does progesterone do?
Maintain the uterus lining and inhibit FSH and LH production
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What happens to progesterone levels during pregnancy?
They remain high
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What triggers menstruation?
A drop in the levels of progesterone and oestrogen
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What allows an increase in FSH levels?
Low progesterone levels
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How is the menstrual cycle controlled?
Through negative feedback
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How is an egg adapted to its function?
Cytoplasm to provide nutrients, haploid nucleus, immediately after fertilisation the cell membrane changes to block other sperm
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How is a sperm cell adapted to it's function?
Acrosome containing enzymes, haploid nucleus, middle section containing mitochondria, tail for mobility
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What is the advantage of egg donation?
It can prevent the risk of passing on a genetic disorder, benefits women who cannot produce eggs in their ovaries
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What is the disadvantage of egg donation?
Emotionally difficult for couple as baby has a different genetic mother; women who donate eggs may react badly to the hormones they are given to release the eggs
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What is the advantage of IVF (in vitro fertilisation)?
It can give an infertile couple a child
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What are the disadvantages of IVF?
Multiple births can happen; babies can be born premature, affecting later development
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What are the advantages of using surrogate mothers?
Benefits women who cannot carry a children in uterus
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What are the disadvantages of using surrogate mothers?
Surrogate mother may develop strong bond with the baby when it is born
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What are the advantages of using hormones to increase pregnancy?
Benefits women who cannot produce enough eggs
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What are the disadvantages of using hormones to increase pregnancy?
It doesn't always work, multiple pregnancies could happen - premature births
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What is sex controlled by?
A pair of chromosomes, ** in women, XY in men
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What are two sex-linked genetic disorders?
haemophilia, colour blindness
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What did Edward Jenner do?
Create the vaccine against smallpox
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What are the three stages of immunisation?
Harmless pathogen or antigenic material introduced, antigens trigger an immune response which causes the production of antibodies, the antigens also trigger production of memory lymphocytes
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What are the disadvantages of immunisation?
it doesn't always work, sometimes people can have a bad reaction to the vaccine
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How are monoclonal antibodies produced?
B lymphocytes are fused with tumour cells, this creates a hybridoma which divides quickly to produce lots of monoclonal antibodies
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How does a pregnancy test work?
if pregnant hormones in urine bind to blue beads which then bind to antibodies on the test ***** turning it blue
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How can monoclonal antibodies be used to find and treat cancer?
The antibodies only stick to cancer cells and are labelled with a radioactive source or a drug
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What did Louis Pasteur do?
he proved that diseases were caused by microbes and invented pasteurisation which is an ASEPTIC technique
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How do plants defend themselves against attack and pests?
By producing chemicals which can be used to treat human diseases, disorders or relieve symptons
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What is the importance of photoperiodism in plants?
plants only germinate when the days are long, they only flower when the days are a certain length when there are insects to pollinate them
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What is a circadian rhythm?
A biological process that follows a 24 hour period
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What are two examples of circadian rhythms?
Stomata opening, flower opening
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Describe what sexual reproduction requires (not sexually)
The finding and selection of a suitable mate, and can involve courtship behaviours that advertise an individual's quality
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What different mating strategies are there?
A mate for life, several mates over a lifetime, a mate for a breeding season, several mates over one breeding season
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Why can parental care be a successful evolutionary tactic?
It increases the chance of offspring surviving, it increases the chance of the parent's genes being passed on
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What is innate behaviour?
A behaviour that is inherited such as herring gulls pecking at the red spots on the parent's beaks
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What is imprinting?
A mixture of innate and learned behaviour e.g. goose chicks take their mum as the first thing they see and follow it
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What is habituation?
Animals learn to ignore a stimulus that is neither beneficial or harmful
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What is classical conditioning?
When an animal learns passively e.g. Ivan Pavlov's dogs
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What is operant conditioning?
Trial and error learning
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How can conditioning be used (examples)?
Sniffer dogs to retrieve drugs, police horses to only respond to their master, dolphins to perform tricks
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What do animals need to do?
Communicate
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How do animals communicate?
Sound signals, chemical signals (pheromones), visual signals
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How do plants communicate with insects?
Release chemicals to attract insects, to attract predator insects
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What did Tinbergen do?
Study innate behaviour in gulls
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What did Lorenz do?
Study imprinting in geese
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What did Fossey do?
Study social behaviour in gorillas
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What did Goodall do?
Study social behaviour in chimpanzees
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How have plants and animals co-evolved?
Flower structure to match insect, poisonous chemicals and insects developed to resist those chemicals
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Describe Ardi
4.4 million years ago, climbed trees, walked upright, long arms, short legs
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Describe Lucy
3.2 million years ago, walked upright, arms and legs half way between ape and human length
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How can mitochondrial DNA be used to provide evidence?
it is inherited down the female line, it has a high mutation rate, there is no genetic recombination
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Why is mitochondrial DNA more useful than Nuclear DNA?
It is less likely to have degraded, it is more abundant
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Describe a fermenter
A vessel used to cultivate micro-organisms for production of biomolecules on a large scale
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Why are nutrients needed in a fermenter?
Because the microorganisms need carbohydrates for energy, nitrates to make protein and vitamins and minerals
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Why is the optimum temperature required in a fermenter?
If the temperature is too cold the reaction will slow down, if it is too hot they will denature
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How is temperature controlled in a fermenter?
By cooling it with a water jacket as the microorganisms produce heat
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Why is the right pH required in a fermenter?
So the microorganims react as quickly as possible
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Why is oxygen required in a fermenter?
So the micro-organisms can respire aerobically
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Why is a stirrer needed in a fermenter?
So that all the microorganisms get nutrients and oxygen
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What are the advantages of using microorganisms for food?
It grows quickly, easy to grow, can grow independent of climate, can use industrial waste as food
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How is mycoprotein made?
Fusarium is grown aerobically in a fermenter with glucose syrup
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What are the advantages of mycoprotein?
It has more protein and fibre but less fat
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How is yogurt made?
Milk is pasteurised then lactobacillus bacteria is added and fermented at around 40 degrees, the bacteria turns the lactose sugar to lactic acid which causes the milk to clot and solidify making yogurt
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How is chymosin produced?
The genes that produce chymosin were isolated and put into yeast cells and then grown industrially
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How is invertase produced?
It is produced naturally by saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast)
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What is the use of chymosin?
To clot milk to make cheese
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What is the use of invertase?
To convert sucrose to glucose and fructose which are sweeter
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What is the use of enzymes in washing powder?
To break down food stains and use lower temperatures
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How is insulin produced?
Restriction enzymes are used to cut the insulin gene out leaving sticky ends, then a plasmid is cut leaving the same sticky ends. Ligase is used to join the sticky ends. The recombinant DNA is inserted into bacteria
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What is Agrobacterium tumefaciens?
A bacterium that invades plant cells and inserts it's own genes into the plant's DNA
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How is Agrobacterium tumefaciens used as a vector in creating transgenic plants?
The agrobacterium is modified to have a desired gene, it is then allowed to infect plant cells which are then grown and have the desired gene
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What does Bacillus thuringiensis do?
Produce Bt toxin which kills many insect larvae
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What is the advantage of using bacillus thuringiensis?
It kills pests
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What are the disadvantages of using bacillus thuringiensis?
The long term affects are unknown and pests made develop a resistance to it
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What is produced by snapdragon flowers and used in purple tomatoes?
Flavonoids
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What are flavonoids?
Molecules with antioxidant effects which protect against cancers and heart disease
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What is the advantage of purple tomatoes?
It gives antioxidants to people who don't eat enough fruit and vegetables
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What are the disadvantages of purple tomatoes?
The taste is different and the long term effects aren't known
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What are the advantages of gm crops in developing countries?
They can improve crop yields, resistance to pets and drought, reduction in deficiency diseases
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What are the disadvantages of gm crops in developing countries?
People starve because of poverty not lack of food, countries may become dependent on companies who supply gm crops, poor soil means even gm crops might fail
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What methods of increased food production are there?
Selective breeding, pest management, genetic modification
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How do selective breeding schemes work?
Plants with the best characteristics are bred together, this is repeated over several generations to develop desired traits
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How do pest management strategies work?
Pests are killed which allows crops to grow bigger
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What are biofuels?
Fuels made out of plants, animals or their waste
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What are the advantages of replacing fossil fuels with biofuels?
They are renewable, carbon neutral, they are fairly clean and don't produce much sulfur dioxide
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What are the disadvantages of biofuels?
They take up land so less land for growing food, cars and power stations need adapting to use biofuels
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How is urea produced?

Back

The breakdown of excess amino acids in the liver

Card 3

Front

What removes urea from the blood?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the renal artery do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the renal vein do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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Irenebinil

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thank you! I have been looking a b3 topic for ages

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