• Created by: Delice
  • Created on: 12-03-17 22:16
When do plants reproduce asexually
in the absence of sex cells and fertilisation
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what is asexual production
it produces identical copies . Plants can produce asexually
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give examples of plants that produce asexually
spider plants , strawberry plants and potato plants
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what are clones
these are plants grown from cuttings or tissue culture.
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how can a plant be reproduced if it has desirable characteristics
it can be reproduced by taking stem , leaf or root cuttings
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why are plants cloned
to be sold commercially
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give advantages of cloning
1) The plants will be genetically identical to the parent , so all the characteristics will be known. 2) it is possible to mass-produce plants that may be difficult to grow from seeds
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give disadvantages of cloning
1) Any susceptibility to disease , or snsitivity to environmental conditions will affect all the plants 2) The reduction in genetic variation reduces the potential for further selective breeding
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method for production of cloned plants.....step 1 & 2
1)select a plant with desired characteristics 2) scrape off a lot of small pieces of tissue into beakers containing nutrients and hormones. Make sure that this process is done aseptically( without the presence of bacteria )to avoid new plants rotting
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method for production of cloned plants .... step 3
Lots of genetically identical plantlets will then grow (these can also be cloned )
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why is cloning plants easier than cloning animals
Many older plants are still able to differentise or specialise , whereas animal cells lose this ability
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what is cloning animals an example of?
its an example of asexual reproduction which produces genetically identical copies
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what are identical twins an example of
they are an example of naturally occuring clones
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what is the most famous example of animals can be cloned artificially
Dolly the sheep , who was the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult body cell
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which cloning technique is now commonly used in cattle breeding ?
the cloning technique called embryo transplantation
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how was dolly produced
by nucleus transfer
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what did the process of nucleus transfer involve
scientists place the nucleus of a body cell (an udder cell) from the sheep they wanted to clone into an empty egg cell which has had its nucleus removed
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what hepled the cell to start dividing during nucleus transfer.
A short , sharp electric current helped the cell to start dividing. It was then implanted into another sheep to grow.
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what are the uses of cloning
1) The mass production of animals with desirable characteristics 2) producing animals that have been genetically modified to provide human products
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what technique could be used to provide stem cells for medical purposes
cloning human embryos in the same way that animals are cloned
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what are the ethical dilemmas about cloing humans
2) cloned animals seem to have a limited life span and die early 2) using human embryos an tampering with them is controversial 3) the effect of cloning on a humans mental and emotional development isnt known
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what are the benefits associated with cloning technology
1) Genetically identical cloned animals will all have the same characteristIcs 2) The sex of an animal and timing of birth can be controlled
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what are the risks associated with cloning technology
1)cloning reduces genetic variation 2) welfare concerns-cloned animals may not be as healthy or live as long as normal ones 3)cloned animals are identical copies so they are genetically the same.There is potential for one disease wiping them all out
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what is a possible solution to the shortage of human organ donors for transplants
to genetically modify ( i.e. artificially alter the genetic code of ) an animal so its organs wouldnt be rejected by the human body. the animal could then be cloned to produce a ready supply of identical donor organs
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what problem could animal donor organs solve
the problem of waiting lists for human transplants. but there are concerns that infections might be passed from animals to humans , there are also ethical issues concerning animal welfare and rights
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Card 2


what is asexual production


it produces identical copies . Plants can produce asexually

Card 3


give examples of plants that produce asexually


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Card 4


what are clones


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Card 5


how can a plant be reproduced if it has desirable characteristics


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