B2.1 cells, tissues and organs flashcards

What does the nucleus do?
Controls the cell's activities and contains genes on the chromosomes
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What is the cytoplasm?
Liquid gel (in which most of the chemical reactions needed for life take place
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What controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell?
The cell membrane
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What uses oxygen to produce energy?
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Where does protein synthesis occur?
In the ribosomes
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What organisms have similar features to plant cells?
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What is the plant cell wall made of and what is its purpose?
Cellulose - to strengthen and support the cell
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What part of the plant houses chloroplasts and why are they green?
Chloroplasts are found in all the green parts of the plant and they contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis
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Where is the cell sap contained?
In the vacuole
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What are bacteria and how big are they?
Bacteria are single-celled living organisms, less than 1 nm (much smaller than plant or animal cells)
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What is the basic structure of a bacterial cell?
Cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane and a cell wall, with a long DNA strand found free in the cytoplasm
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What are plasmids?
Small circular bits of DNA (found in bacterial cells)
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What are 2 things a bacterial cell may have?
A slime capsule around their cell wall or a flagellum (a long protein strand that thrashes about for movement)
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What is the basic structure of a yeast cell? (4 things)
Nucleus; Cytoplasm; Membrane; Cell wall
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How do yeast cells usually reproduce?
Asexual budding (new yeast cell grows out from original cell)
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What is the word equation for aerobic respiration in yeast?
Sugar + oxygen --> water + carbon dioxide (+ energy)
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in yeast and what is this process commonly called?
Sugar --> ethanol + carbon dioxide (+ energy) - AKA fermentation
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What does specialised mean in terms of cells?
Its structure is adapted to suit a particular job that it does
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What are the main 3 adaptations of fat cells?
Small amount of cytoplasm, large amount of fat; Very few mitochondria; Can expand (up to 1000x original size)
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What do cone cells do, where are they found and how do they pass information to the brain?
They allow you to see in colour and are found in the retina (light-sensitive layer) of the eye. They pass information the brain with a special synapse connected to the optic nerve
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Where are rots cells found and what's their main job and adaptations?
Root hair cells are found close to the tip of the root and they have and increased surface area and a large permanent vacuole to efficiently take in lots of water
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What are 4 adaptations of sperm cells?
Long tail (whip side to side for movement); Mitochondria in middle section (give energy to tail); Acrosome (digestive enzyme store to break down egg's outer layer); Large nucleus (store genetic info)
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What is diffusion?
The spreading out of the particles of a gas or of any substances in a solution, resulting in the net movement of particles from a higher to lower concentration
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What does diffusion rely on?
The random movement of particles
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What will mean diffusion will take place quickly?
A bigger difference in concentration between the two areas (steeper concentration gradient). Also increased by increasing the temperature or surface area
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What are 2 things that move across your cell membrane by diffusion?
Amino acids and oxygen
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What is cell differentiation?
Cells becoming specialised to to carry out particular jobs
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What is a tissue?
A group of cells working together
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Name 3 types of human tissue and 3 types of plant tissue
Human: muscular, glandular and epithelial; Plant: epidermal, mesophyll and xylem
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What are organs made up of? What is an organ system?
Tissues - a combination of different organs that carry out major bodily functions
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Name 3 places where substances are exchanged in the body
Gases exchanged in the lungs; Digested food exchanged from the small intestine to the blood; Different dissolved substances exchanged from the blood to the kidney tubules
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What does the digestive system do and where does it begin and end?
Exchanges substances with the environment, from your mouth to your anus
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What are the main organs when it comes to digesting foods?
The stomach and the small intestine
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Other than the breakdown of food, what else happens in the small intestine and how is it adapted for this function?
Soluble food molecules are absorbed into the blood, so the small intestine has a large surface area
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What happens to undigested food in your large intestine?
Water is absorbed into your blood, and the material left forms faeces
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What are 3 organs found in plants?
Leaves; Stems; Roots
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the cytoplasm?


Liquid gel (in which most of the chemical reactions needed for life take place

Card 3


What controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What uses oxygen to produce energy?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Where does protein synthesis occur?


Preview of the front of card 5
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