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  • Created on: 24-04-17 23:48
what is a nucleus in plant
a nucleus, which controls the activities of the cell
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what is a cytoplasm in plant
cytoplasm, in which most of the chemical reactions take place
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what is a cell membrane in plant ?
a cell membrane, which controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell
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what is a mitochondria in plant ?
mitochondria, which are where most energy is released in respiration
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what is a ribosome in plant?
ribosome, which are where protein synthesis occurs.
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what do plant and algal cells also have?
Plant and algal cells also have a cell wall made of cellulose, which strengthens the cell
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what do plants cell often have?
chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole filled with cell sap
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what does a chloroplast do
absorb light energy to make food
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what does a bacterial cell consist of?
A bacterial cell consists of cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall;
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what are the genes in a bacterial cell?
the genes are not in a distinct nucleus
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what is a yeast?
Yeast is a single-celled organism
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what do yeast cells have?
Yeast cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall.
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what may be a cell be specialized in?
carrying out a particular function
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what is the sperm cell specialised in carrying out
these cells carry half the genetic information. they have tales to swim toward the egg
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what is the red blood cell specialised in carrying out
these cells are adapted to carry oxygen to cells and carbon dioxide away from them
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what is the muscle cell specialised in carrying out
these cells can change their length to help us move
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what is the root hair cell specialised in carrying out
the root hair gives these cell a bigger surface area to take in the water from the soil
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what is the nerve cell specialised in carrying out
these cells can be very long (up to 2m) to carry messages around the body
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what is the palisade cell specialised in carrying out
these cells contain chloroplast to help the plant make food by photosynthesis
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what is the ciliated cell specialised in carrying out
these cells ate found in tubes leading to the lings and the conduct. the hairs called cilia move dirt out of the lungs and help to move eggs along the oviduct
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what can dissolved substances do?
Dissolved substances can move into and out of cells by diffusion
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what is diffusion?
diffusion is the spreading of the particles of a gas, or of any substance in solution, resulting in a net movement from a region where they are of a higher concentration to a region with a lower concentration. The greater the difference in concentrat
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what is oxygen required for
The oxygen required for respiration passes through cell membranes by diffusion.
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why do cells change
so that they can perform different functions.
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group of cells perform what?
Groups of cells performing the same function make a TISSUE
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group of tissues make what?
an ORGAN
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Group of organs make what?
an ORGAN SYSTEM
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what is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function
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examples of tissues include- what can a muscular tissue do?
muscular tissue, which can contract to bring about movement
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what can a glandular tissue do?
glandular tissue, which can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones
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what can a Epithelial tissue do?
Epithelial tissue, which covers some parts of the body
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what are organs made of?
tissues
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what may one organ contain?
several tissues
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the stomach is and organ which contains which tissues
muscular tissue,glandular tissues and epithelial tissue
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what is the muscular tissue job in the stomach?
muscular tissue, to churn the contents
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what is the glandular tissue job in the stomach?
to produce digestive juices
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what is the epithelial tissue job in the stomach?
to cover the outside and the inside of the stomach.
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what is the glands do in the digestive system?
■ glands, such as the pancreas and salivary glands, which produce digestive juices
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what does the stomach and small intestine do in the digestive system?
where digestion occurs
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what does the liver do in the digestive system?
produces bile
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what does the small intestine do in the digestive system?
where the absorption of soluble food occurs
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what does the large intestine do in the digestive system?
where water is absorbed from the undigested food, producing faeces.
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plant organs-what does a epidermal tissue do
epidermal tissues, which cover the plant
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what does a mesophyll do
mesophyll, which carries out photosynthesis
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what does xylem and phloem do?
xylem and phloem, which transport substances around the plant
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photosynthesis equation
carbon dioxide+water light energy abovethe arrow---> glucose+oxygen
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what happens during photosynthesis?
light energy is absorbed by a green substance called chlorophyll, which is found in chloroplasts in some plant cells and algae
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what happens to the energy?
This energy is used by converting carbon dioxide (from the air) and water (from the soil) into sugar (glucose). Oxygen is released as a by product
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what may limit the rate of photosynthesis?
shortage of light , low temperature, shortage of carbon dioxide.
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What happens to the glucose made in photosynthesis- what may it be converted in?
1.insoluble starch for storage
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what do plants cell use during photosynthesis?
2.Plant cells use some of the glucose produced during photosynthesis for respiration
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to produce what?
fat or oil for storage
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to produce cellulose bring strength to what?
to produce cellulose, which strengthens the cell wall
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distribution of organisms- what physical factor that may affect organisms?
temperature, availability of nutrients , amount of light, availability of water, availability of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
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proteins- what are proteins?
Protein molecules are made up of long chains of amino acids
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what are these long chains?
These long chains are folded to produce a specific shape that enables other molecules to fit into the protein.
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what do proteins act as?
structural components of tissues such as muscles, hormones, antibodies
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what are biological catalyst called
enzymes
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what are enzymes?
proteins
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what is the shape of an enzyme vital for?
the enzyme's funcation
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what do high temperatures do to the shape of the enzymes
changes the shape
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different enzymes work best at....
different at ph values
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enzymes in the digestive system-what do some enzymes do?
work outside the body cells
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what is the digestive enzymes produced by?
specialised cells in glands and in the lining of the gut.
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where do the enzymes then passout?
The enzymes then pass out of the cells into the gut where they come into contact with food molecules
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what does the catalyse do?
They catalyse the breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules
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where is the enzyme amylase produced?
is produced in the salivary glands, the pancreas and the small intestine.
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this enzyme catalyses the breakdown of.....
starch into sugars in the mouth and small intestine
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what are Protease enzymes are produced by
the stomach, the pancreas and the small intestine.
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these enzymes catalyse the breakdown of....
proteins into amino acids in the stomach and the small intestine
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what lipase enzymes are produced by?
by the pancreas and small intestine.
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these enzymes catalyese the breakdown.....
of lipids (fats and oils) into fatty acids and glycerol in the small intestine
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fat(----> above the arrow) glycerol+fatty acid
lipase
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protein---->amino acids
protease
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starch ----> sugars
amylase
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what does the stomach also produce?
hydrochloric acid
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The enzymes in the stomach work most effectively in?
these acid conditions.
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what does the liver produce and where is it stored?
The liver produces bile, which is stored in the gall bladder before being released into the small intestine.
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what does bile neutralize?
Bile neutralises the acid that is added to food in the stomach
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what does provide?
This provides alkaline conditions in which enzymes in the small intestine work most effectively.
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what do some microorganisms produce?
enzymes that pass out of the cells.
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these enzymes have many uses for where?
home and in industry
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in the home: what may biologial detergents contain?
portein- digesting and fat digesting enzymes (proteases and lipases)
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in the home: what may biologial detergents be more effective at?
low temperatures than other types of detergents.
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in the industry: what are proteases used for?
proteases are used to ‘pre-digest’ the protein in some baby foods
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in the industry: what are carbohydrases used for?
carbohydrases are used to convert starch into sugar syrup
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in the industry: what is isomerase used to convert?
isomerase is used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup, which is much sweeter and therefore can be used in smaller quantities in slimming foods
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what are enzymes used for in the industry
In industry, enzymes are used to bring about reactions at normal temperatures and pressures that would otherwise require expensive, energy-demanding equipment.
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but what hapens to enzymes at high temperture
However, most enzymes are denatured at high temperatures and many are costly to produce
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at a certain temperture the enzyme....
becomes denatured and stops working.
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whats happens when The high temperature has altered the shape of the enzyme
it no longer has an active site
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aerobi respiration- what happens during aerobic respiration?
During aerobic respiration (respiration that uses oxygen) chemical reactions occur that: ■ use glucose (a sugar) and oxygen ■ release energy.
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where does aerobic respiration take place continuously?
Aerobic respiration takes place continuously in both
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where does most of the reactions in aerobic respiration take place
inside mitochondria
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Energy that is released during respiration is used by?
the organism
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what are some of the things the energy is used for?
to build larger molecules from smaller ones,to enable muscles to contract
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are some of the things the energy is used for?
in plants, to build up sugars, nitrates and other nutrients into amino acids which are then built up into proteins.
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during exercise, what are the changes that take place?
the heart rate increases, the rate and depth breathing increases
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what do these changes increase
the blood flow to the muscles and so increase the supply of sugar and oxygen and increase the rate of removal of carbon dioxide.
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what do muscles store glucose as?
glycogen, which can then be converted back to glucose for use during exercise.
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anaerobic respiration- what happens during exercise, if insufficient oxygen is reaching the muscles?
they use anaerobic respiration to obtain energy
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as the breakdown of glucose is incomplete much what is released?
, much less energy is released than during aerobic respiration
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what is anaerobic respiration a result of?
Anaerobic respiration results in an oxygen debt that has to be repaid in order to oxidise lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water.
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what is anaerobic respiration?
Anaerobic respiration is the incomplete breakdown of glucose and produces lactic acid.
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what happens if muscles are subjected to long periods of vigorous?
activity they become fatigued, i.e. they stop contracting efficiently.
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what is one cause of muscle fatigue?
its the build-up of lactic acid in the muscles
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what does blood flowing through the muscles do?
removes the lactic acid
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what did mendel investigated?
monohybrid inheritance in peas.
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what should you should you understand about mendel's work?
You should understand that Mendel’s work preceded the work by other scientists which linked Mendel’s ‘inherited factors’ with chromosomes.
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what else did mendel do?
when he investigated monohybrid inheritance in peas
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what idea did mendel proposed ?
the idea of separately inherited factors and the importance of this discovery was not recognised until after his death.
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what are Cells from human embryos and adult bone marrow, called?
stem cells,
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what are stem cells can be made to differentiate?
into many different types of cells, e.g. nerve cells
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human stem cells have the ability to do what?
the ability to develop into any kind of human cell
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treatment with stem cells may be able to do what?
help conditions such as paralysis
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cell division- in body cells what is normally found in what?
the chromosomes are normally found in pairs.
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what do body cells divide in?
mitosis
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what do the chromosomes contain
genetic infromation
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what happens When a body cell divides by mitosis?
copies of the genetic material are made, then the cell divides once to form two genetically identical body cells.
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when does mitosis occur
.Mitosis occurs during growth or to produce replacement cells
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how much sets does body cells have?
Body cells have two sets of chromosomes; sex cells (gametes) have only one set
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meiosis- cells in what organs?
Cells in reproductive organs
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testen in....
testes and ovaries in humans – divide to form gametes.
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what happens when When a cell divides to form gametes?
copies of the genetic information are made ■ then the cell divides twice to form four gametes, each with a single set of chromosomes.
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sexual reproduction-what does it give?
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION gives rise to variation because when gametes fuse, one of each pair of alleles comes from each parent
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in human body cells how much is one of the chromosomes?
23 pairs of chromosomes carries the genes that determine sex
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what in females is the sex chromosomes the same as?
**
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what in males is the sex chromosomes the same as?
XY
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what happens when gametes join at fertilisation?
a single body cell with new pairs of chromosomes is formed.
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what a does a new individual then develops
A new individual then develops by this cell repeatedly dividing by mitosis
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asexual reproduction- what are The cells of the offspring produced by Asexual Reproduction produced by?
mitosis from the parental cells. They contain the same alleles as the parents.
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genetic variation- what does sexual reproduction give?
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION gives rise to variation because when gametes fuse, one of each pair of alleles comes from each parent.
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what are Some characteristics are controlled by?
a single gene
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Each gene may have different forms called...
alleles
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what will an allele control?
the development of characteristics only if the dominant allele is not present is a recessive allele.
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what are chromosomes made up of
large molecules of DNA (deoxyribo nucleic acid) which has a double helix structure.
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what is a gene?
a small section of DNA.
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what does each gene codes for?
a particular combination of amino acids which makes a specific protein.
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each person has unique what and what can it be used for?
Each person (apart from identical twins) has unique DNA. This can be used to identify individuals in a process known as DNA fingerprinting
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genetic disorders- what are some disorders?
inherited
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what is polydactyl and what is caused by?
polydactyl is – having extra fingers or toes it is caused by a dominant allele of a gene and can therefore be passed on by only one parent who has the disorder.
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what can embryos be screened for?
Embryos can be screened for the alleles that cause these and other genetic disorders
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what is cystic fibrosis?
a disorder of cell membranes
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what must it be?
must be inherited from both parents. The parents may be carriers of the disorder without actually having the disorder themselves.
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what is caused by?
It is caused by a recessive allele of a gene and can therefore be passed on by parents, neither of whom has the disord
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speciation- what could changes in the environment of plants and animals may cause
them to die out
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what does the fossil record shows?
that new organisms arise, flourish, and after a time become extinct
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what does it also show?
The record also shows changes that lead to the formation of new species
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what can scientist not be certain about
about how life began on Earth. The uncertainty arises from the lack of enough valid and reliable evidence
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where does evidence for early forms of life come from?
fossils
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what are fossils?
the ‘remains’ of organisms from many years ago, and are found in rocks
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what are some of the ways fossils may be formed?
1. From the hard parts of animals that do not decay easily 2. From parts of organisms that have not decayed because one or more of the conditions needed for decay are absent
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what are some of the ways fossils may be formed?
. When parts of the organism are replaced by other materials as they decay 4. As preserved traces of organisms, e.g. footprints, burrows and rootlet traces.
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what were Many early forms of life?
soft-bodied, which means that they have left few traces behind
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traces there were have been what?
been mainly destroyed by geological activity.
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what can we learn from fossils?
how much or how little organisms have changed as life developed on Earth
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what may extinction caused by?
changes to the environment over geological time, new predators, new diseases
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what may extinction caused by?
new, more successful, competitors, a single catastrophic event, e.g. massive volcanic eruptions or collisions with asteroids, through the cyclical nature of speciation
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what is a cell membrane in plant ?

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Card 4

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what is a mitochondria in plant ?

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Card 5

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what is a ribosome in plant?

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