AQA B1

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  • B1
    • control
      • reflexes
        • fast and automatic
          • protection
      • brain
        • processes signals from sense organs
          • makes decisions
      • keeps things steady
        • temperature
        • ion content
        • blood glucose
      • hormones
        • co-ordinate long term changes
          • the menstrual cycle
      • drugs
        • medicinal drugs
          • tested in double blind trials
        • recreational drugs
          • harmful / addictive
          • affects brain
    • energy and recources
      • carbon cycle
        • photosynthesis traps carbon in biomass
          • food chains transfer it to animals
            • respiration and decay transfer it to the air
      • changing environments
        • make survival harder
          • organisms must adapt or move away
      • elements
        • recycled
          • decomposers
            • bacteria + fungi
          • detritivores
            • e.g- worms
      • energy
        • flows along the food chain
          • each organism loses energy as heat and waste
      • indicator species
        • highlight pollution
          • sulfur dioxide
            • lichen distribution
          • dissolved oxygen
            • invertebrate distribution
    • variation
      • asexual reproduction
        • adult cell cloning
        • tissue culture
        • embryo splitting
      • genetic engineering
        • transfers new genes to organisms
          • make embryos develop the characteristics the genes code for
          • makes GM crops
            • higher yields, more nutrients
            • provokes concerns about health and the environment
      • Darwin's theory of evolutions
        • not accepted at first
          • little evidence, no mechanism, conflicted with biblical accounts
      • genetics
        • variation increased by sexual reproduction
      • environment
      • similarities and differences used for classification
    • health
      • if infected...
        • painkillers relieve symptoms
        • white blood cells
          • engulf pathogens
          • make anitbodies
          • make antitoxins
        • antibiotics may kill bacteria
          • bacteria may become resistant
      • requires
        • balanced diet
          • right nutrients
          • enough energy
        • regular exercise
      • vaccines
        • prepare white blood cells to make antibodies
          • provide immunity

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