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  • Created by: notae003
  • Created on: 16-05-15 22:03
What is fitness?
The ability to do exercise.
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What does being healthy mean?
Being free from disease.
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What is blood pressure caused by?
Contractions of the heart.
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Which blood vessel is under the greatest pressure?
The arteries.
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What is systolic pressure?
The maximum pressure the heart produces when it contracts.
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What is diastolic pressure?
The minimum pressure the heart produces when it relaxes.
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Name one thing that high blood pressure causes.
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Name two things that low blood pressure causes.
Dizziness and fainting.
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What does cholesterol do?
It sticks to the walls of arteries, slowing down/blocking the flow of blood.
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What does carbon monoxide do?
It reduces the amount of oxygen carried by the blood.
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Name a stimulant and what it does.
Nicotine - speeds up the heart rate and makes blood vessels narrower.
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What is a diet?
The food that we eat.
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What is a vegan?
Someone who doesn't eat any foods from animals.
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Name something Jewish people don't eat.
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Where are excess carbohydrates stored?
In the liver, as glycogen or converted to fats.
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Where are excess amino acids stored?
They can't be stored and so are excreted in the urine.
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Name two things protein is needed for.
Growth and repair.
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What is kwashiorkor?
A disease caused by protein shortage in the diet.
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Name one symptom of kwashiorkor.
Swelling of the abdomen.
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What is a pathogen?
A disease-causing microbe.
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What are infectious diseases?
Diseases which can spread from one person to another.
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What type of acid in the stomach kills pathogens?
Hydrochloric acid.
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What is a vector?
An animal which carries an organism that causes disease.
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Give an example of a vector.
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What is cancer caused by?
Cells which have lost the ability to stop dividing.
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What are antibiotics?
Drugs that kill bacteria.
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What are antigens?
Protein molecules found on the surface of cells.
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What is a placebo?
An inactive substance containing no medication which is used as a control when testing new drugs.
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Name four factors that increase blood pressure.
Smoking, being overweight, excessive alcohol intake and being under lots of stress.
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Give three consequences of high blood pressure.
Strokes, brain damage and kidney damage.
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Give the consequences of low blood pressure.
It causes poor circulation which can lead to dizziness/fainting.
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How can a poor diet lead to heart disease?
If your diet is high in saturated fats/salt, you are more at risk of developing heart disease.
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How do narrow arteries increase the risk of heart disease?
Blood flow to the heart is restricted so the heart muscle receives less oxygen. If the heart muscle is cut off completely, it will cause a heart attack.
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How can a thrombosis increase the risk of heart disease?
A thrombosis also restricts blood flow in the coronary arteries.
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What are proteins made of?
Amino acids.
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What are fats made of?
Fatty acids and glycerol.
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What are carbohydrates made of?
Simple sugars (e.g. glucose).
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What are proteins used for?
Growth/repair of tissue, and providing energy in emergencies.
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What are fats used for?
To provide energy, act as an energy store and provide insulation.
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What are carbohydrates used for?
To provide energy.
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Name the three factors that affect someone's diet.
Age, gender and physical activity.
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Why is protein deficiency common in developing countries?
Overpopulation means there isn't enough protein rich food and there is no money to invest in agriculture.
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Give two reasons why your EAR may vary.
It is just an 'estimate' and it varies with age.
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What is the equation for BMI?
Body mass (kg) / (height) squared
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Give one reason as to why BMI isn't always reliable.
Because athletes have a lot of muscle which weighs more than fat.
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What are first class proteins?
Proteins that contain all the essential amino acids.
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Are plant proteins first class proteins or second class proteins?
Second class proteins.
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Name the four types of pathogens and give an example of which diseases they cause.
1) Fungi (athlete's foot) 2) Bacteria (cholera) 3) Viruses (flu) 4) Protozoa (malaria).
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Why does each pathogen need specific antibodies?
Because the antigens on their surface are unique to that pathogen.
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What is active immunity?
Where the immune system makes its own antibodies after being stimulated by a pathogen. It's usually permanent.
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What is passive immunity?
Where you use antibodies made by another organism. It's usually temporary.
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Describe the process of immunisation.
You are injected with dead/inactive pathogens - these are harmless but still trigger an immune response. Your white blood cells produce the appropriate antibodies and destroy the pathogen. Some white blood cells stay in the blood as memory cells.
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Give two benefits of immunisation.
It stops you from getting ill and if most people are immunised, the disease won't be able to spread easily.
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Give two risks of immunisation.
There can be short-term side effects and you can't have some vaccines if you're already ill.
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What happens if antibiotics are misused?
It can increase the risk of resistant strains of bacteria.
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Why are double blind trials used when testing new drugs?
To remove the chance of bias and make the results more reliable.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What does being healthy mean?


Being free from disease.

Card 3


What is blood pressure caused by?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Which blood vessel is under the greatest pressure?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is systolic pressure?


Preview of the front of card 5
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