B063: 2014 TechMed Pre-release Chapter 2 Revision

This is for Chapter 2 of the pre-release B063 exam for 2014.

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ICT software is used by TechMed 2014 to operate the computer systems. Name them (there are 4).
Network software, operating systems, back-up software and utility programs.
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What is the function of a network software?
It is used to control the LANs, to monitor network usage and to manage communication between each of the LANs.
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What is the function of operating systems?
They perform functions such as file management, input and output of data, multitasking and providing a platform for application software.
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What is the function for back-up software?
It creates copies of each data entry and to store full copies of all hospital data for the use in the recovery of lost data.
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What is the function of utility programs?
A series of utility programs can be used for virus protection with automatic update of virus definitions and the implementation of firewalls to prevent unauthorised access to hospital files.
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ICT general purpose application software is used to help with day-to-day running of the hospital. Name some of them.
Web browser, email, word processing, spreadsheets, DTP, presentation software and relational databases.
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What are the typical uses for a web browser in a hospital?
Internet research and general business-related searching.
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What is the typical use for an email in a hospital?
Communication software used for contacting staff, patients and suppliers.
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What are the typical uses for word processing software in a hospital?
Typical uses include: communicatio with patients by post, creation of financial reports and invoices, and the creation of medical research reports.
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What are the typical uses for spreadsheet in a hospital?
Financial calculations can be carried out using a spreadsheet and data can easily be presented in a graphical form.
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What are the typical uses for DTP in a hospital?
Desktop Publishing Software can be used to make flyers and health information leaflets.
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What are the typical uses for presentation software in a hospital?
To create multimedia presentations for training staff as well as presenting reports to colleagues.
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What are the typical uses for relational databases in a hospital?
They can be used to store data on patients. Other databases exist to store human resource data.
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What is an electronic health record (EHR)?
It is a network based software package that groups an entire patient history into one easy-to-access file.
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What sort of things are include in an electronic health record (EHR)?
Medical history, medication, test results, allergies, personal details and patient statistics.
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Why do hospital staff find it easy to follow long term health trends of the patient and treat them effectively?
All the information is in one digitally formatted file.
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The EHR interface contains a series of ... and ... to view details of the patient with all the symptoms and associate procedures that are relevant to the patient.
Drop-down menus & navigation buttons.
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What are the principles of a typical EHR package based on?
Network-enabled relational database.
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Define a database.
A collection of information that is stored and organised.
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In a database, what is a table?
It is a collection of records in a database.
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In a database, what is a field?
A field is the structure used to contain a single item of data. Another way of putting this is the column titles.
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In a database, what is a record?
A record is a collection of fields. Another way of putting this is a single row in a table.
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Patient records will be stored in a relational database. What is this?
Where patient-related data is contained in multiple tables.
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How are the tables linked in a relational database?
By linking the primary key in one table to the foreign key in another table.
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What is a primary key?
A primary key is a unique identifier such as a patient number that is used to identify each record in a database.
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If the hospital patient records database had 3 tables - for example, patients, doctors and treatments, what relationships could exist?
One patient can have any doctors, one doctor can have many patients, one patient can have many treatments, etc.
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What is an alternative to storing hospital records electronically?
The records would have to be kept as paper copies in a filing cabinet - a lot harder and more complicated to use and to create.
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A large amount of data would have to be stored for each patient. Name some general details that would have to be stored.
Any from: patient ID (this would be the key field in a database), patient full name, date of birth, contact phone numbers, address, postcode, gender.
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A large amount of data would have to be stored for each patient. Name some medical details that would have to be stored.
Any from: doctor who made referral, blood group, allergies, medical history, current hospital physician, current symptoms, current diagnosis, current treatment, medication and prescriptions, test results, images and discharge date.
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There are several advantages to storing patient records electronically. What are they?
Improved data integrity, sharing patient records, patient confidentiality, patient report creation, data security, validation, automated data entry, back-ups and patient test results.
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Why is improved data integrity an advantage to storing patient records electronically?
There is no duplication of data as it is only stored once. All changes will be updated once and any references to the patient will automatically pick up the changes.
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Why is sharing patient records an advantage to storing patient records electronically?
Authorised users can access the same record at the same time and it is possible to access the database from different locations using a range of devices.
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Why is patient confidentiality an advantage to storing patient records electronically?
Confidentiality is improved by setting up passwords and access rights so only authorised staff members can access the database and make changes to it.
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Why is patient report creation an advantage to storing patient records electronically?
Creation of patient reports is possible using multi-table queries (questions). The output from the query can be exported to a suitable software application such as word-processed reports.
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Why is data security an advantage to storing patient records electronically?
The use of database encryption can prevent unauthorised users from reading the patients records without the right encryption key.
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Why is validation an advantage to storing patient records electronically?
Validation is used to ensure that the patient data entered into the system is both reasonable and sensible. This can prevent the introduction of errors.
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Why is automated data entry an advantage to storing patient records electronically?
Automated data entry can be used in a database where an address can be automatically entered when the patient has only given their postcode and their house number.
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Why is back-ups an advantage to storing patient records electronically?
Back-up copies of the database can be held so the system can be recovered in the event of a hardware malfunction or disaster.
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Why is patient test results an advantage to storing patient records electronically?
Patient test results can be digitalised and stored as images. This includes radiology data so time is saved in having to search for it in a separate location.
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What are the 4 typical validation checks for a database?
Input mask, presence check, range check and list boxes.
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What does the validation check 'input mask' do in a database?
It controls the format of the data entered into a field.
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What does the validation check 'presence check' do in a database?
It ensures the data is entered in an essential field.
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What does the validation check 'range check' do in a database?
It ensures the data entry is sensible, such as the year of birth being less than 120 years ago.
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What does the validation check 'list boxes' do in a database?
It ensures that only valid data from a list can be entered.
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There are also some disadvantages to storing patient records electronically. What are they?
Time, cost and training.
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Why is time a disadvantage to storing patient records electronically?
It is time consuming to set up as the system has to be designed and developed by experts.
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Why is cost a disadvantage to storing patient records electronically?
Start-up costs are high as hardware and software needs to be purchased and data has to be transferred from paper to the database. Also, maintenance costs are high as ICT technicians and database administrators are needed to manage the system.
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Why is training a disadvantage to storing patient records electronically?
All the hospital staff need training when the system in introduced.
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What is the main advantge of using a relational database to store patient records?
A number of different devices can access the data. Desktop PCs or workstations can access the database if connected to the network with Ethernet cables.
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TechMed2014 has incorporated wireless technology onto the network so a wide range of devices can access patient records. Name some.
Laptops, ultrabook computers, smartphones, tablet computers.
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In all cases, the database is only accessed from the network and is not downloaded onto mobile devices. Why?
This is for security reasons as a mobile device can get easily lost or stolen which could cause a serious breach of patient confidentiality.
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Why are laptops, smartphones and tablet computers extremely efficient for doctors to carry on their rounds?
They have touch-screen technology and the use of Wi-Fi.
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What is one of the most popular tablets for doctors to use and what is it used for?
The iPad is one of the most popular tablets and doctors use it for mostly accessing patient records.
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What is an advantage of using this type of technology?
Patients can feel more invloved in the process as the doctor can easily show them key features of their notes and the treatment they will have.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the function of a network software?

Back

It is used to control the LANs, to monitor network usage and to manage communication between each of the LANs.

Card 3

Front

What is the function of operating systems?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the function for back-up software?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the function of utility programs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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