Axonal transmission

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How many neurons are there approximately in the brain?
100 billion
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How do neurons transmit signals?
Electrochemically
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How many areas of the neuron are there?
Dendrites, cell body/soma, axon, presynaptic terminals
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How can axonal transmission be described?
A-B transmission
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Name the most common disease of the nervous system related to axonal transmission
Multiple Sclerosis
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Name some symptoms of multiple sclerosis
Tremor, Weakness, Paralysis, Numbness or pain, Lost co-ordination, Uncontrolled eye movement, Slurred speech
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Multiple sclerosis can be hard to what?
Diagnose
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What age does MS usually affect people?
20-40
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What is a nerve impulse?
Signal used by neurons to transmit info between spatial locations and solution of how to move nerve info around biological computer
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What is the resting potential of a neuron and why is it negative?
-70mV and because although the neuron tries to balance only some ions can pass through membrane
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Which 4 ions are inside the cell?
Anions (A-), K+, Cl-. Na-
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Which 3 ions are outside of the cell?
K+, Cl-, Na+
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The inside of the cell is negative relative to what?
The outside of the cell
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There is no difficulty crossing membrane for which type of cell?
Large organic protein (-ve) charge
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How does diffusion determine the distribution of charged ions?
Molecules move to area of lower concentration
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What other force determines how charged ions are distributed - think magnets.
Electrostatic attraction/repulsion
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What ions are involved in distribution of ions and what are their charges?
A-, K+, Na+, Cl-
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What is the A- anion restricted to?
Inside of cell
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Where is K+ (mostly)
Inside neuron
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Where is Na+ (mostly) ?
Outside neuron
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Where is Cl- (mostly)?
Outside neuron
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What does the sodium-potassium pump do?
Transport Na+ neurons out and K+ in
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How many more Na+ neurons are there per K+ neuron?
Three times
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Where does the sodium-potassium pump get it's energy from?
ATP
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What does the sodium-potassium pump result in that is -70mV?
-70mV resting potential
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What does the membrane and pump resist?
Inward Na+ movement
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Which ions can move backwards and forwards across membrane and become steady due to opposing diffusion and electrostatic pressure?
Cl- and K+
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When some sodium leaks back in what is it expelled by?
The pump
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What is a sudden pulse where the resting potential is temporarily reversed called?
Action Potential
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Where does the action potential begin and by what?
At dendrite/soma and by neurotransmitters
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What does this change?
Membrane permeability
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What do the changes need to be to trigger action potential?
Large and positive (enough)
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What type of neurotransmitters depolarise?
Excitatory
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Increase/decrease chance of AP
Increase
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What does depolariastion cause?
EPSP
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What type of neurotransmitters hyperpolarise?
Inhibitory
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Increase/decrease chance of AP
Decrease
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What does hyperpolarisation cause?
IPSP
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What is the threshold for EPSP's?
-60mV
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When an AP is triggered what does this temporarily reverse to and why?
+30mV due to the opening of ion channels
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Once this is reached what happens?
Na+ channels close and K+ channels open until resting potential is reached
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What speeds up the slow process of AP?
Myelination
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What does the myelin sheath insulate?
Axon
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What becomes decremental between nodes?
Conduction
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What does the conduction get each time?
Re-boosted
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Most neurons in which system have this?
CNS
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What happens eventually in multiple sclerosis?
Degeneration of myelin blocks
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Why does this happen?
Due to auto-immune virus
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Why are symptoms varied?
Affected axons are in different places
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do neurons transmit signals?

Back

Electrochemically

Card 3

Front

How many areas of the neuron are there?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How can axonal transmission be described?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name the most common disease of the nervous system related to axonal transmission

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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