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  • Created on: 24-01-18 19:44
Herwegen et al., 2015
NDD - The cause or onset of acquired disorders can occur at any time during a person's lifespan. o A key factor of neurodevelopmental disorders is that individuals show difficulties from birth onwards and the cause is often situated during gestation
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Kenny et al., 2015
Term-The term 'autistic' was endorsed by a large percentage of autistic adults, family members/friends and parents but by considerably fewer professionals; 'person with autism' was endorsed by almost half of professionals but by fewer autistic adults
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Baumgardner et al 1995
Fragile X - cog & beh - o Males " Mean IQ 40 - quite severe in terms of intellectual disability. " Communication impairment " Language deficit " Social impairment (especially anxiety) " Hyperactivity; Inattention; Impulsivity; Hyperarousal
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(Freund & Reiss, 1991)
Fragile X - cog & beh - o Females " IQ 70+ " Social difficulties " Emotional; Anxiety; Depression
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Glaser et al., 2003
Fragile X - cog & beh - o It is important to consider early predictors of risk and experience o Positive environmental influences (e.g. parental expectations, parenting skill, emotional climate, organisation of the home) may act as protective factors
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Charman, 2015
Autism diagnosis - ASD is now used to describe a range of neurodevelopmental conditions that show considerable phenotypic heterogeneity; both in terms of presentation at any one age and across development and which are likely to differ in aetiology
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Walsh et al., 2011
Autism diagnosis - An autism diagnosis can be difficult to establish. look for biomarkers for autism e.g. gene expression profile, head size, metabolomic profile
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Wass, 2011
Diff in brain autism - there are clear differences in the brain in terms of connectivity in autism o Local (small regions) over connectivity (more communication within regions); then, across regions, long-distance under-connectivity
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Baron-Cohen et al., 1985
Autism cog & beh - ToM. typically developing&Down syndrome controls. These controls did well. Autistic individuals struggled. Shows that...difficulty understanding that someone else might have different thoughts and beliefs to themselves
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Ozonoff et al., 1991
Autism cog & beh - Executive function difficulties. Disks between pegs - planning, Card sorting task. overall performance tended to be quite poor for the people who were autistic.
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(Morris et al., 1999)
WS - "Elfin-like" " Broad brow " Flat nasal bridge " Short upturned nose " Wide mouth " Full lips " Irregular dentition - teeth might be spaced apart
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Reiss et al., 2004
WS diff in brain - " What has been found overall is that the total brain volume is somewhat reduced in WS, and particularly in the occipital lobe the grey matter volumes seem to be significantly reduced in people that have WS
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Tomaiuolo et al., 2002
WS - diff in brain - " A narrowing of the corpus callosum in the splenium and isthmus has also been reported in individuals with WS
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Martens et al., 2008 - cog
WS - ean Full Scale IQ - 50-60 (range 40-100); stable over time . visuospatial functions constitute a cognitive weakness in individuals with WS. Typical (delayed): semantics, word fluency, Atypical: grammatical comprehension, gender agreement
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Rhodes et al., 2010
WS - executive function - Evidence of frontal-lobe related executive function impairment in WS in areas of attention set-shifting, planning, and working memory that relate to a range of cognitive and behavioural difficulties seen in WS individuals
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Cornish et al., 2007
WS attention - WS, FXS & mental age matched controls. in the anti-saccade task children with WS did tend to have problems with attention disengagement. orienting task infants with WS displayed greater interference effects of invalid cues than FXS
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Martens et al., 2008 - beh
WS - Behavioral studies utilizing both parental ratings and individual interviews indicate that individuals with WS often display hyperactivity, peer difficulties, specific fears, and generalized anxiety
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Levitin and Bellugi (1998)
WS - beh -they scored similarly to musically trained young children. However, these individuals with WS were participants in a music camp, introducing a possible predisposition to musical interest and/or skill and potentially biasing the results.
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Riby et al., 2014
WS - beh - " Qualitative and quantitative data showed that young people with WS have difficulties making judgements about whether or not to trust and engage in conversation with unfamiliar people.
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Cole & Hughes., 1994
** - has a range of cardinal features which every individual would have - overgrowth, macrocephaly, advanced bone age, characteristic facial appearance, intellectual disability (broad term that was used)
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(Tatton-Brown et al., 2005)
** - major features - scoliosis, seizures, cardiac anomalies, renal anomalies, hyperlaxity. These are very common features of individuals with **. they wouldn't need these for diagnosis though
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Schaefer et al., 1997
** - MRI scans. None had normal MRI scans. Noticed common features - abnormalities of the corpus callosum. Also tended to have enlarged ventricles. Also, suggestion that there is inadequate development of posterior white matter - inferred
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Lane et al., 2016 - cog
** - cog - Majority of individuals with Sotos have an intellectual disability. reported range of IQ scores: 21 - 113. Most were below average. Verbal IQ appears to be consistently higher than performance IQ. Speech and language delays reported.
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Finegan et al. (1994)
** - cog - assessed language in participants with Sotos and matched controls " Used standardised assessments of language " Found language abilities consistent with general level of intellectual functioning
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Lane et al., 2016 - beh
** - o Behavioural problems reported. Came under themes which were: " Aggression and/or tantrums; Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Anxiety
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Lane et al., 2017
** - beh - o Characteristics of autism spectrum disorder in Sotos syndrome o Gave out the Social Responsiveness Scale . 83% of participants met clinical cut-off for ASD. o No significant gender difference o Significant effect of age
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Sheth et al., 2015
** - beh - Common behavioural features associated with Sotos syndrome: Self injurious-behaviour, stereotyped behaviour and destruction of property; Impulsivity and overactivity; Social interaction impairment; Preference for routine, repetitive q's
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Lovaas 1987
First published Applied Behavioural Analysis - start before age 3. at least 40 hours per week. therapy should last at least 2 years. Lots of one-to-one discrete trials, that would build up over time and go into different areas e.g. exchanging, readin
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Dr Sally Rogers
Used general principles of ABA, and these were then incorporated into an early intervention education package. This is called the Early Start Denver Model. but they don't stick to it as strictly as Lovaas first suggested it had to be done
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Makrygianni & Reed, 2010
Meta-analysis showed that behavioural Early Intervention Programs are very effective in improving intellectual, language, communication & social abilities of children with ASD, while they had a moderate to high effect on the adaptive behaviour improv
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Norbury & Sparks, 2012
family support - " It is important to consider what family members are worried about and what they value or disvalue about their child's behaviour, language and education
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Cridland et al., 2014
they proposed that there is a bi-directional influence on the family, in terms of neurodevelopmental disorders. The family members have an influence on the individual, the individual has an influence on family members
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Ball & Karmiloff-Smith., 2015
meth principles improve research - Many studies of infants and children are not developmental at all, because they take static snapshots, targeting a specific age group
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Karmiloff-Smith, 1998
meth principles improve research - To understand ontogenetic development in atypical or typical individuals, it is crucial to look at developmental trajectories across time
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Hankey & Warlow, 1999
treatment stroke - start on aspirin immediately, many of them should be entered into thrombolysis and other treatments, then after acute phase lower aspirin, high blood pressure treated, anticoagulation
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Schellinger & Warach, 2004
treatment stroke - thrombolysis within 3 hours. Treatment beyond 3 hours not shown to be effective in any single trial but meta-analyses show less but still significant effect within 3-6 hours after stroke
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Alpert, 2011
Stroke - prevent - Women using birth control pills in combination with smoking increases the risk for stroke especially if the female is 35 years of age or
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Chen et al., 2013
Stroke - prevent - high stroke prevalence was observed in younger patients who were predominantly males with a history of smoking, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and high body mass index
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Kinlay, 2011
stroke - prevent - stroke prevention - atrial fibrillation is the direct factor Xa inhibitors. This class of drug offers more stable anticoagulation without the need for frequent blood tests to assess whether patients are in the therapeutic range
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Schulz, 2013
Stroke - prevent - A standard secondary preventive regimen will address multiple vascular risk factors and will usually consist of an antiplatelet agent, a lipid lowering drug, and an antihypertensive agent
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Fang et al., 2005
Stroke - risk factor - The effect of atrial fibrillation on stroke in women is greater than in men
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******* et al., 2013
stroke - cog function - There is not a consistent profile of cognitive deficits in stroke, though slowed information processing and executive dysfunction tend to predominate
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Barker-Collo, 2006
stroke - cog function - literature review - post-stroke deficits in executive function, memory, language, and speed of processing are common. Those identified as having "post-stroke dementia" presenting increased impairments particularly in memory
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Tatemichi et al., 1994
Stroke - cog function - This study investigated the initial overall cognitive ability and its components as a predictor of functional improvement and ambulation during rehabilitation. Found that the total Minimental State Examination (MMSE) score
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Tatemichi, 1995
stroke - cog function - Tatemichi reported dementia in 26.3% of stroke survivors compared with 3.2% in age-matched control patients without stroke
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Brainin et al., 2015
stroke - cog function - The increase of dementia and milder forms of cognitive deterioration that occur after stroke warrants an increase of funding for basic and clinical research. Currently, no established method of prevention
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Wilson et al., 1987
stroke - cog function assessments - Developed behavioural inattention test
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Butler, 2002
stroke - cog function assessment - Assessment/diagnosis of dyspraxia/apraxia o Making sure it isn't something else. Making sure it is not: " Comprehension deficit " Muscle weakness " Sensory impairment " Tone of abnormality
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Wall et al., 2015
stroke - Assessment of cognition typically - pen-and-paper tasks, which are often reliant on linguistic & motor function, creating barriers for many stroke survivors. E.g. Cognitive impairments, communication issues, endurance problems, sensory loss
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Haag et al., 2009
stroke cog therapy - A population-based cohort study suggested that the use of a antihypertensive drug could decrease the risk of dementia with 8% per year of use for people younger than 75 years of age
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Robertson et al. 2002
Stroke - cog therapy - Strong evidence that limb activation therapies improve neglect
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Carod-Artal et al., 2000
Stroke - emo & beh - " Stroke survivors were followed in Spain for one year, and one-third showed depressive symptoms at discharge and two-thirds within one year
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Parikh et al (1990)
Stroke - emo & beh - two-year outcome of patients with acute post-stroke major or minor depression compared with controls with comparable post-stroke impairment. Patients with depression had significantly less recovery in activities of daily living
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Astrom et al., 1993
stroke - emo & beh - Approximately 25-50% of patients manifest anxiety in the acute phase of stroke, whereas the prevalence is slightly less at 1 year and at 3 years follow-up
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Schöttke & Giabbiconi, 2015
stroke - emo & beh - Lifetime depression could not predict the emergence of post-stroke depression. In contrast, lifetime anxiety was a good predictor of post-stroke anxiety
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Calvert et al., 1998
stroke - emo & beh - Inappropriate or uncontrollable laughing or crying (also referred to as pseudobulbar affect) occurs in 20% to 25% of stroke survivors
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Parvizi et al., 2001
stroke - emo & beh - has been suggested that the critical Pathological Laughing and Crying lesions occur in the cerebro-ponto-cerebellar pathways and that, as a consequence
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Choi-Kwon et al., 2005
stroke - emo & beh - " The proportion of people with fatigue after stroke ranges from 23% to 75%, in accordance with case mix and how fatigue is identified
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Lawrence et al., 2001).
stroke - physical impairm - Stroke can result in a large variety of symptoms and signs but the most common and widely recognized impairment caused by stroke is motor impairment, which typically affects the control of movement of the face, arm & leg
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Goldstein, 2000
stroke - physical impairment - " Spasticity is a velocity-dependent increase in tone. Although spasticity may impair recovery and can be painful, it can be useful in enabling hemiparetic patients to walk by circumducting an extended leg
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Brewer et al., 2012
stroke - assess physical impair - " Assessment o NIHSS - Stroke Deficit Scale o Barthel Index - Assessment of activities of daily living o mRS - Global Disability Scale
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Galvin et al., 2008
stroke - therapy physical impair - There is evidence that increased time spent on exercise in the first 6 months post-stroke results in significant improvements in walking ability and speed as well as extended activities of daily living
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Chollet et al., 2011
stroke - therapy physical impair - The evidence for use of fluoxetine is promising. The FLAME study . Fugl-Meyer motor scale improvement at day 90 was significantly greater in the fluoxetine group
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White & Johnstone, 2000
stroke - physical impair treat - measurement of physical independence or disability that is compressed into standardized scales has arguably led to the neglect of the emotional and social consequences of stroke and a partial view of the person
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Langhorne et al., 2002
stroke - physical impair treat - there are many challenges to the development of evidence‐based stroke rehabilitation. Before it can become a reality a reliable evidence-base needs to be established providing information which is relevant, reliable,
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Goldstein, 2000
stroke - physical impair treat - " A variety of drugs are available for the treatment of spasticity; they should be used cautiously because of side effects and possible interference with compensatory mechanisms
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Jorgensen et al., 1995
stroke recovery - " Population based studies of stroke recovery have shown that the time taken to achieve best functional performance for mild, moderate, and severe strokes averages 8, 13, and 17 weeks respectively. but The times vary considerably
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Langhorne et al., 2011
stroke recovery - " Each patient should have a customized program that is refined. Important steps include: (1) assessing needs, (2) establishing attainable goals, (3) developing progressive interventions matched to ability, and (4)evaluating progres
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Palmer & Glass, 2003
stroke recovery - Found that family function, broadly defined, clearly exerts an influence on stroke survivor recovery. In particular, there is evidence for the positive effects of family availability; better family communication and problem-solving
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Kenny et al., 2015


Term-The term 'autistic' was endorsed by a large percentage of autistic adults, family members/friends and parents but by considerably fewer professionals; 'person with autism' was endorsed by almost half of professionals but by fewer autistic adults

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Baumgardner et al 1995


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(Freund & Reiss, 1991)


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Glaser et al., 2003


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