Attachment Key Studies

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Who conducted a study to investigate infant-caregiver interactions?
Meltzoff and Moore
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Describe the procedure of Meltzoff and Moore's study.
4 stimuli and observed the behaviour of infants in response. Observers watched videos and noted instances of tongue protrusions/head movements.
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Who conducted a study on the development of attachments?
Schaffer and Emerson
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What year did Schaffer and Emerson conduct their study?
1964
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Describe the procedure of Schaffer and Emerson's study.
60 working-class infants (5-23 weeks) from Glasgow. Visited every 4 weeks, stranger anxiety observed. Mother reported infant's response to separation in 7 everyday situations.
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What were the findings from Schaffer and Emerson's study?
Constructed stages of attachments: 1) Indiscriminate attachments 2) Beginnings of attachment 3) Discriminate attachment 4) Multiple attachments.
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Name 2 researchers who conducted animal studies to investigate attachment.
Lorenz and Harlow
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What year did Lorenz conduct his study?
1935
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What year did Harlow conduct his study?
1959
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Outline Lorenz's procedure.
Gosling eggs divided into 2 groups - 1) left with mother, 2) placed in incubator. The first moving object 2) saw was Lorenz. They began following him around.
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What were the findings from Lorenz's study?
The 2) goslings imprinted on Lorenz. Imprinting is restricted to a critical period (2 days). Imprinting is irreversible and long-lasting. It affects mate preferences (sexual imprinting).
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Outline Harlow's procedure.
Cloth covered mother, plain wire mother, each with different head. 8 rhesus monkeys were studied for 165 days. 4 monkeys = milk was on cloth mother and vice versa. The time they spent with each mother was recorded.
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Outline Harlow's findings.
All 8 spent most time with cloth mother. When frightened by mechanical bear, all monkeys clung to cloth mother. Findings show that infants develop attachment to the person offering contact comfort rather than food.
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What long-lasting effects did Harlow find?
The monkeys developed abnormally. Socially abnormal = froze & fled when other monkeys approached. Sexually abnormal = unusual mating behaviour & didn't cradle own babies. Could recover if spent time with their peers before 3 months old.
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Who conducted research into types of attachment?
Ainsworth
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What year did Ainsworth conduct the Strange Situation?
1970s.
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Outline the procedure of Ainsworth's study.
Observation lab with video cameras to record the infant's response to separation from carer, reunion with carer, response to a stranger and test the secure base concept.
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What were the findings from Ainsworth's study?
3 main attachment types: Secure (type B), Insecure-Avoidant (type A) and Insecure-Resistant (type C).
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What behaviours do securely-attached infants display? (Type B)
High willingness to explore (uses carer as secure base), moderate stranger anxiety, can be soothed during separation, enthusiastic on reunion.
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What percentage of infants were classed as securely attached in Ainsworth's study?
66%
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What behaviours do insecure-avoidant infants display? (Type A)
High willingness to explore, low stranger anxiety, indifferent during separation, avoids contact on reunion.
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What percentage of infants were classed as insecure-avoidants in Ainsworth's study?
22%
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What behaviours do insecure-resistant infants display? (Type C)
Low willingness to explore, high stranger anxiety, distressed during separation, seeks and rejects on reunion.
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What percentage of infants were classed as insecure-resistants in Ainsworth's study?
12%
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What did Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg analyse?
Cultural variations in attachment.
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What year was Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg's analysis?
1988
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Outline the procedure of Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg's analysis.
Conducted a meta-analysis of 32 studies from 8 countries using the strange situation. They were interested in whether there would be inter-cultural differences (between cultures) and intra-cultural differences (within cultures).
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What were the findings from Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg's analysis?
Variation within cultures was 1.5 times greater than variation between cultures. Secure attachment was the most common classification in every country and insecure-avoidant was the 2nd most common (except Japan and Israel).
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What were the conclusions from Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg's study?
Secure attachment is the 'norm' supporting the idea that this type of attachment is best for healthy social and emotional development. Cultural similarities support the view that attachment is an innate and biological process.
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Name a study that supports Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg's findings?
Tronick et al.
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What were the findings from Tronick et al's study?
Infants were breastfed and looked after by different women but slept with their own mother at night. Despite differences in childrearing practices, the infants still showed 1 primary attachment at 6 months.
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Name a study that shows cultural differences?
Grossman and Grossman
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What were the findings from Grossman and Grossman's study?
German infants tended to be classified as insecurely rather than securely attached. German culture=some interpersonal distance between parents & infants, so infants don't engage in proximity-seeking behaviours. Appear insecurely-attached in SS.
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Name a study that looked at the attachment types of 60 middle-class Japanese infants.
Takahashi
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What were Takahashi's findings?
Similar rates of secure attachment but no evidence of insecure-avoidant. High rates of insecure resistant (32%). In Japan infants rarely experience separation from their mothers, which explains why they were more distressed in SS than Americans.
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Describe the procedure of Meltzoff and Moore's study.

Back

4 stimuli and observed the behaviour of infants in response. Observers watched videos and noted instances of tongue protrusions/head movements.

Card 3

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Who conducted a study on the development of attachments?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What year did Schaffer and Emerson conduct their study?

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Card 5

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Describe the procedure of Schaffer and Emerson's study.

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