Atomic Structure, Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

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Atoms
All substances are made of Atoms. An Atom is the smallest part of a substance.
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Elements
An element is a substance made of only one type of atom. They are found on the periodic table. There are about 100 elements. Around 80 are metals and around 20 are non-metals.
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Symbols
Each element has a symbol which is either: A capital letter e.g Hydrogen is H Or a capital followed by a small letter e.g. Zinc is Zn
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John Dalton
In the early 1800s John Dalton suggested that atoms were like tiny snooker balls and that all substances were made up of different cominations of a few different types of atom.
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JJ Thomson
In 1897, JJ Thomson discovered the electron and suggested that they were like tiny plum pudding balls of positive charge with negative electrons stuck inside.
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Ernest Rutherford
1911, Ernest Rutherford suggested that atoms had a central nucleus containing smaller particles called protons which were positive.
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Niehls Bohr and James Chadwich
1913, Niehls Bohr said electrons orbited the central nucleus. In 1932, James Chadwich discovered neutrons.
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Model?
So as more experiements were done and more evidence was gathered, ideas about the structure of atoms were updated. We currently use the nuclear model.
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Atomic Structure
Protons: Charge: 1+ Atomic Mass: 1 Neutrons: Charge:0 Atomic Mass: 1 Electrons: Charge: 1- Atomic Mass: 0(almost)
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Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons.
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Mixtures consist:
A mixture consists of 2 or more substances which have not chemically reacted together. e.g. white coffee, salt solution.
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Chemical Properties
The chemical properties of the components in the mixture don't change.
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Methods
The components can be separated again by:- evaporation, condensation, distillation, filtration and chromatrography.
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Copper Sulphate and Sand
Add water, filter.Copper Sulphate solution is left behind, Evaporate the water.
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Card 2

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Elements

Back

An element is a substance made of only one type of atom. They are found on the periodic table. There are about 100 elements. Around 80 are metals and around 20 are non-metals.

Card 3

Front

Symbols

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

John Dalton

Back

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Card 5

Front

JJ Thomson

Back

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