Atomic structure, bonding, structure, properties of matter and the periodic table

  • Created by: leo1223
  • Created on: 07-05-18 19:38
Define atom
An atom is the smallest part of an element
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Define ion
An ion is a negatively or positively charged particle
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Define compound
A compound is a substance that contains two or more elements that are chemically combined
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Define mixture
A mixture is a substance that contains two or more elements and compounds that are not chemically combined together and can be separated through physical processes
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Name five different methods that are used to separate mixtures?
Filtration, crystallisation, simple distillation, fractional distillation and chromatography
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Explain the process of filtration?
Filtration is used to separate soluble solids from insoluble solids, e.g. a mixture of salt and sand can be separated by dissolving the salt in water and then filtering the mixture
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Explain the process of crystallisation?
Crystallisation is used to obtain a soluble solid from a solution, e.g. salt crystals can be obtained from a solution of salty water by making the mixture warm while allowing the water to evaporate leaving the solid salt crystals behind
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Explain the process of simple distillation?
Simple distillation s used to obtain a solvent from a solution, e.g. heating a solution of water to 100 degrees, collecting water vapour in the condenser which causes it to change state resulting in a conical flask full of pure water
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Explain the process of fractional distillation?
Fractional distillation is used to separates mixtures in which the components have different boiling points, e.g. oxygen and nitrogen can be obtained from liquid air by fractional distillation because they have different boiling points
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Explain the process of chromatography?
Chromatography is used to separate the different soluble coloured compounds of a mixture, e.g. the different colours added to a fizzy drink can be separated by chromatography
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Describe the plum-pudding model?
The plum-pudding model was discovered by Thomoson who believed that atoms contained tiny, negative electrons surrounded by a sea of positive charge
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Describe the nuclear model?
The nuclear model was discovered by Rutherford who believed the positive charge in an atom had to be concentrated in a very small area, this area was named the 'nucleus' .
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What is the size of a typical atom?
0.1nm or 1 x 10(to power of)-10m
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What does an atom largely consist of?
An atom is mostly empty space
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What is the equation for number of neutrons in an element?
Number of neutrons = Mass number - Atomic number
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Define isotope
An isotope is an element that has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
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In ionic bonding what type of elements gain or lose electrons?
Metal atoms lose electrons where as non-metals gain electrons in ionic bonding
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How did Newlands arrange his idea of the periodic table?
Newlands arranged the known elements in order of atomic weight, Newlands began to see repeated patterns however some elements were missing
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How did Mendeleev arrange his idea of the periodic table?
Mendeleev relaised that some elements were undiscovered, therefore he left gaps , he arranged the elements into vertical columns or 'groups' with elements that had similar properties
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What was later discovered about Mendeleev's table when subatomic particles were discovered?
It was revealed that Mendeleev had also organised the elements in order of increasing atomic number
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What did Mendeleev use his table to predict?
Mendeleev used his table to predict the existence and properties of new elements
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What are group 0 know as?
Noble gases
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Describe the properties of group 0?
All elements in group 0 have a full outer shell of electrons, which means they are very stable and unreactive
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What is group 1 know as?
Alkali metals
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Describe the properties of group 1
Alkali metals only have 1 electron on its outer shell, which makes them very reactive.
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Why are the group 1 elements so reactive?
This is because the electron on the outer most shell loses its influence from the nucleus as it gets further away from the nucleus.
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What is the name of group 7?
Halogens
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Describe the properties of group 7
The halogens have 7 electrons on its outer most shell. Reactivity decreses down the group bacause it loses its itnfluence with the nucleus which makes it harder to gain an extra electron.
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Describew the properties of the transition metals
Transition metals form coloured compounds, they can also be used as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions. They are also good conductors of heat and electricity, and are mallable.
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Name the three states of matter
Solid, Liquid, Gas
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Name the properties of ionic compounds
Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points, do not conduct electricity when solid because ions can not move. They do however conduct electricity when molten or in a solution because ions are free to move about and carry their charge.
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Describe the process of metallic bonding
Metallic bonding occurs in metallic elements and alloys, metals have delocalised electrons that when two elements or more are bonded, these delocalised electrons produce ion lattice where positive ions are held into place by the electrons.
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Describe the properties of high-carbon, low-carbon and stainless steel.
Steel is a very useful alloy made from iron. Steel with a high carbon content is hard and stong. Steel with a low carbon content is soft and brittle. Stanless steel contains chronium and nickel and is hard and resistent to corrosion.
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Name 3 giant covalent structures.
Diamond, Graphite, sillicon dioxide
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Describe the properties of giant covalent structures.
They have very high melting and boiling points as the bonds are hard to break.
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Name 4 uses of fullerenes
To deliver drugs into the body, lubricants, as catalysts, reinforcing materials
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Explain what a fullerene is
A fullerene is a structure made from carbon atoms. An example of a fullerene is a buckminsterfullerene
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Explain what a polymer is?
A polymer consists of very large molecules, which are held together by covalent bonds
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Describe the properties of polymers?
Polymers are solid at room temperature due to the intermoleuclar forces being strong between the large molecules
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What are nanostructures?
Nanoparticles that contain only a few hundred atoms are combined to form nanostructures
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Name 4 uses of nanoparticles
synthetic skin, computers and technology, catalysts for fuel cells and new cosmetics and deodorants
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Describe how displacement reactions work with halogens?
A more reactive halogen will displace a less halogen from an aqueous solution of its salt
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What is the correlation between the strength of the forces between particles and the melting point?
The stronger the forces between particles, the higher the melting point of the substance
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Name 3 limitations of the particle model
The particle model does not take into account the forces between particles, the volume of particles, the space between particles
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Explain what is meant by an aqueous solution?
Aqueous means a substance that has been dissolved in water, therefore a aqueous solution is a solution that contains dissolved substances
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Why do ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points?
Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points because ionic bonds are very strong, therefore it requires lots of energy to overcome them
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Why are gold, pure copper and aluminium not very useful and how can they be changed to become useful?
Gold, pure copper and aluminium are too soft for many uses, therefore these substances are often mixed with small amounts of similar metals to make them harder and more useful
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What is a metallic bond?
A metallic bond is the attraction between positive ions and delocalised electrons
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What are delocalised electrons in metals able to do?
Delocalised electrons in metallic compounds are able to move around freely and transfer energy
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Describe the atomic structure of metals?
Metals have a giant structure in which electrons on the outer shell are delocalised, regular arrangement (lattice) of positive ions held together by electrostatic attraction to the delocalised electrons
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What force of attraction is present in an ionic bond?
A strong electrostatic force of attraction
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Describe the properties of simple molecules?
Can not conduct electricity, have no overall electric charge, low melting and boiling points due to weak intermolecular forces
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Describe the atomic structure of simple molecules?
Simple molecules are held together by weak intermolecular forces
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Describe the strength of the intermolecular forces compared to the covalent bonds?
The intermolecular forces are weak compared to the strength of the covalent bonds in the molecules themselves
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What tends to happen when the size of the molecules increases in simple molecules?
The larger the molecules are, the stronger the intermolecular forces between the molecules become
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What force of attraction holds polymers together?
Strong intermolecular forces
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What is the mass number the sum of?
The mass number is the sum of the protons and neutrons added together
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How are elements arranged in a modern periodic table?
In a modern periodic table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number
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What did Bohr deduce about the electrons in an atom?
Bohr deduced that electrons must orbit the nucleus at specific distances, otherwise they would spiral inwards
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Describe Diamond's structure and properties?
Diamond is a form of carbon, it has a giant, rigid covalent structure, it has a very high melting point due to it's strong covalent bonds, it does not conduct electricity, lattice structure
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Describe Graphite's structure and properties?
It has a giant covalent structure, it has a very high melting point, it has a hexagonal structure which stacks in layers, the layers are held together by weak intermolecular forces, layers can slide past each other, it has a few delocalised electrons
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What is the size of the diameter of coarse particles (dust)?
Coarse particles have a diameter between 1 x 10^-5 and 2.5 x 10^-6
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What is the size of the diameter of fine particles
Fine particles have a diameter between 100nm and 2500nm
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What is the size of the diameter of nanoparticles ?
Nanoparticles have a diameter between 1nm and 100nm
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Why do nanoparticles make great catalysts?
Nanoparticles are effective catalysts as they have a large surface area to volume so they are very effective
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Define ion

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An ion is a negatively or positively charged particle

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Define compound

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Define mixture

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Name five different methods that are used to separate mixtures?

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