# AQA A A2 Research Methods Vocab.

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• Created by: Hiranya
• Created on: 02-06-16 15:18
Null Hypothesis
An assumption that there is no relationship in the population from which the sample was taken with respect to the variables being studied.
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Alternative Hypothesis
A testable statement about the relationship between two variables
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Two tailed hypothesis
Non directional hypothesis
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Extraneous Variable
Any variable other than the IV that might affect the DV and therefore confound the results.
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Counter Balancing
A way to reduce order effects by ensuring that each condition is tested first and second equally.
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Operationalise
To ensure that variables are in a form that can be easily tested.
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Order effects
In repeated measures design, a confounding variable arising from the order in which conditions are presented.
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Participant Variables
Characteristics of individual participants that may influence the outcome of a study.
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Situational variables
Factors in an environment that could act as an extraneous variable.
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Investigator effects
Anything that the investigator does that has an unintended effect on the participants performance in a study.
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Standard Deviation
A measure of dispersion that shows the amount of variation in a set of scores.
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Internal Validity
The extent to which a procedure is measuring what its intending to measure.
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concordance rate
A measure of similarity between two individuals or sets of individuals on a given trait.
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Content Analysis
A kind of observational study in which behaviour is observed indirectly in written or verbal material.
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Critical Value
In an inferential test the value of the test statistic that must be reached to show significance
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Ecological Validity
A form of external Validity concerning the ability to generalize a research effect beyond the particular setting in which it is demonstrated to other settings
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inter - interviewer reliability
The extent to which two interviewers produce the same outcome from an interview.
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Measures of central tendency
A descriptive statistic that provides information about a typical or average response for a set of scores.
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Pilot study
A trial run of a research study involving only a few participants to represent the target population. Its conducted to test the research design, with the mind to improve it before a full scale study.
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Stratified sample
A sampling technique in which groups of participants are selected in proportion to their frequency in the population to obtain a representative sample.
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Type 1 error
Rejecting a null hypothesis that is true.
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Type 2 error
Accepting a null hypothesis that is false.
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Falsifiability
is the inherent possibility that it can be proven false.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

A testable statement about the relationship between two variables

#### Back

Alternative Hypothesis

### Card 3

#### Front

Non directional hypothesis

### Card 4

#### Front

Any variable other than the IV that might affect the DV and therefore confound the results.

### Card 5

#### Front

A way to reduce order effects by ensuring that each condition is tested first and second equally.