Anglo-Saxon England (Unit One.)

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  • Created by: cieran_10
  • Created on: 25-04-18 21:35
What were the people in the midlands mostly?
Anglo-Saxons.
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When did people settle in the midlands and where did they arrive from?
From northern Germany in the fifth century.
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What did the midlands people set up in England and give one example?
They set up several kingdoms throughout Britain, for example: Wessex.
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Who did the Welsh people descend from and where did they live, until the Anglo-Saxons arrived?
They descended from British people, who used to live in the south of England,
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Until what century was Wales independent from England?
Until the 13th century.
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What two things did Wales have to itself?
Kings and kingdoms.
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What does the word 'Wales' mean in Anglo-Saxon English? (3.)
Foreigner/outsider/slave.
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Who lived in Cornwall and where had they inhabited until the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons?
Ancient British people, who used to live throughout Britain.
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What was Scotland, in terms of countries?
Its own nation.
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Give two words to describe the border region between England and Scotland.
Unsettled and unsafe.
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What made the English-Socttish border region unsafe?
The frequent raids into people's land.
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What two types of English people were the northern and eastern people?
Viking and Anglo-Saxon.
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Where did the Vikings originate from? (3.)
Modern-day Norway, Denmark and Sweden.
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After what year did the Vikings settle in England?
AD850.
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Name the six earls of England in 1065.
Harold, Gyrth, Leofwine, Edwin, Morcar and Waltheof.
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Where did Harold rule over?
Cornwall/South of England.
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Where did Gyrth rule over?
The east midlands.
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Where did Leofwine rule over?
The south-east midlands.
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Where did Edwin rule over? (3.)
The north midlands, the west midlands and the north-east midlands.
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Where did Morcar rule over?
The north.
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Where did Waltheof rule over? (2.)
The south midlands and the east.
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In what century did the rulers of Wessex lead other Anglo-Saxon kings into battle to end Viking rule in the north and east of England?
In the tenth century.
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By what year had the last Viking leader been defeated in England, to make England one kingdom?
By AD954.
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How did the French kings struggle, in terms of control?
They struggled to control local lords they ran larger regions as if they were their own kingdoms.
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By what year did English kings have strong and central control over England?
By AD1000.
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What was English land divided into?
Shires.
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What did MOST shires have?
Several royal burhs.
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What were burhs?
Fortified towns that kept the local community safe.
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Where in England was the shire system weaker?
The north-east.
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What happened to most royal burhs, which would have supported the English economy? (2.)
They developed into market towns, where trade prospered.
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What did the royals set up, to support trade?
The royal mint.
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What three countries had accepted the Church from Rome?
Italy, Germany and France.
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What two things did Roman Catholic art focus on?
Saints and Angels.
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In what year as the Roman Catholic Church brought to England?
AD597.
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To what did Religion did the Anglo-Saxons belong to prior to the arrival of the Roman Catholic Church in England?
Paganism.
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In the north of England, where had Christianity come from and where were these from?
Missionaries from Ireland.
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What two artistic features did the Celts adopt within Christianity? (3.)
They avoided using straight lines and used elaborate patterns, made of interlaced bands.
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What (artistically) were the Roman Catholics known for?
Their interwoven stems of plants.
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Give an example of a Bible manuscript from England and give the year that it was realised?
John's gospel, that was published in c.1012.
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What language is the example written in?
Latin.
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What two types of tradition does the example blend?
Roman Catholic and Celtic traditions.
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Name a sign that the Church in England differed from that on the continent of Europe and what this showed about the English Church?
That the Bible was written in Old English, showing that the Church in England was independent.
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Why was is that the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church instead that the Bible was only ever written in Latin?
So that it didn't get lost in translation.
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Name the four people that were literate in Anglo-Saxon society.
Monks, nuns, priests and the wealthy people.
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Why is it hard to find out what the opinions of the poorer people were in Anglo-Saxon society?
As they were unable to write their opinions down and the opinions of the rich were recorded over theirs; of their wealth.
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What would people gather around the worship?
Around large stone crosses.
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What would SOMETIMES go with the normal Anglo-Saxon places of worship?
A shelter.
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What did the Anglo-Saxons MOSTLY not have for worship?
A permanent church building.
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What was the difference between the Church on the continent of Europe and that in England, in terms of worship location?
The one in England was much more rural.
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What did Church hubs do?
They would be for priests to visit outlying villages, to lead worship.
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When did each village get its own stone Church?
After the Norman Conquest.
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Why did the Pope, of the time, complain about the Church in England?
As they had too many saints, that were only local people, who were highly thought of after their death.
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What was wrong with England naming their own saints?
It was that saint appointment should be agreed with the Pope.
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What three things did Anglo-Saxon sermons condemn the English people to do? When did they specifically condemn these things?
Over-eat, binge-drink and indulge in sex, especially on designated Holy Days.
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When was the Viking invasion that one sermon said to be God's punishment for Anglo-Saxon sins?
1013.
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What two OTHER things did sermons condemn the Anglo-Saxons for believing in them?
Witchcraft and spells.
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Prior to the arrival of Catholicism in England, what did the Anglo-Saxons believe to do harm? (2.)
Elevs and goblins.
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What is the devil and its demons shown to be like in Anglo-Saxon Bible illustrations?
Elves.
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What were elves believed to cause by Anglo-Saxons?
Illness.
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What do historians believe the Anglo-Saxons used to ward of the elves?
Magical rings.
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Why can't historians be sure that medical rings were sued to ward of elves in Anglo-Saxon England?
As they have never been able to decipher the lettering on the side of the ring.
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Why is it that historians presume that magical rings were used to ward off elves?
As they believe the lettering on the side to be a spell/chant.
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Where was St.Dunstan from and what was his first position in the Church?
He was a monk from Somerset.
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When did Dunstan become the Archbishop of Canterbury?
In AD960.
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How many hours would Dunstan spend praying?
Many hours.
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What OTHER thing was Dunstan devoted to?
Art.
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What three things was Dunstan skilled in?
Music, engraving and illustrating.
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What two words have been used to describe Dunstan?
Generous and selfless.
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Give an example of when Dunstan was unselfish.
When a rich Anglo-Saxon woman gave Dunstan a donation (for himself), but he spent it on improving monasteries in England.
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Name the there things that St.Dunstan did for the Church in England.
He worked: to end corruption, improve the education and commitment of those in the Holy Orders, to stop priests form marrying and to rebuild churches, abbeys and monasteries.
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How did Dunstan find the rebuilding of religious buildings and why was this done?
Through thegn and/or earl donations, that wanted the monks and nuns to pray for their souls (that they go to heaven.)
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In what year did Dunstan die and what happened soon after this year?
In 988 and after this he was declared a saint.
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Was it unlikely or likely that the Church in England would carry on the reforms of Dunstan after his death?
It was likely.
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What prevented the Church in England from carrying on the works of Dunstan after his death?
The Viking attacks that began again in the 11th century.
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When was Canterbury destroyed by Viking attacks?
1011.
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Between what years did the Danish kings rule over England?
Between 1014 and 1042.
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Were there reforms during Danish rule over England and compare this Church ruling from that of Dunstan's?
Yes there were, but this never recovered to that in 1000.
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What gave Edward the Confessor an insight into what the Church was like on the continent or Europe?
The fact that he lived in Normandy during his early life.
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Who did Edward bring to England from Normandy?
Priests.
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What challenge did Robert face when trying to reform the Church in England?
Resistance from English priests.
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What did Robert do to help with Bible writing?
He trained monks in high-quality illustration.
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Between what years was there a power struggle in England?
Between 1051 and 1052.
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Who objected to the rising power of Edward's Norman friends?
Harold Godwin/the Earl of Wessex.
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Who forcibly replaced Robert and with whom?
Harold replace him with him Stigand.
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In what language is the Bayeux Tapestry?
Latin.
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What Archbishop of Canterbury is shown on the Bayeux Tapestry?
Stigand.
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What was Stigand's religious role before becoming the Archbishop of Canterbury?
A priest.
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How did Stigand impress people?
Through his administration skills.
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How did Stigand not impress people?
Through his spirituality.
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What did Stigand do very little of in the English Church?
Reform.
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What did Stigand do instead do, instead of run the Church?
Be an adviser to both Harold and King Edward.
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By what year was Stigand committing pluralism and why?
By 1065; he was both the Bishop of Winchester and Archbishop of Canterbury and was being payed for both.
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What action did Stigand do to stop his pluralism?
Nothing/he refused to give up his position as Bishop.
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What other sin was Stigand accused of and what is this?
Simony, which is the selling of Church positions to the highest bidder.
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Why did Stigand maintain his support from the Anglo-Saxons?
Due to his support from Harold.
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In how many shires did Stigand own land in and how did he own so much land?
In ten shires, due to Harold.
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Wha did Stigand's land give him and what did this allow him to do for the Church?
It gave him wealth and power, meaning he could donate to churches and monasteries.
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What did the Pope suggest Stigand do?
Give up his position in Winchester and go to Rome for an official blessing.
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How did Stigand react to the Pope's offer?
By ignoring him.
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Who was the leader of the Church in the north and what was his official title?
Wulfstan, who was the Archbishop of York.
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What OTHER position did Wulfstan hold in England?
The Bishop of Worcester.
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Who was Wulfstan close to?
Harold Godwinson.
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What were most English priests, in comparison to those on the continent of Europe?
Poorly educated.
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Why else did the Pope criticise the Church in England?
As they allowed their priests to marry.
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Why was the marriage of priests unacceptable?
As it had been discouraged on the continent of Europe for many years.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When did people settle in the midlands and where did they arrive from?

Back

From northern Germany in the fifth century.

Card 3

Front

What did the midlands people set up in England and give one example?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who did the Welsh people descend from and where did they live, until the Anglo-Saxons arrived?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Until what century was Wales independent from England?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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