The Vikings and Saxons 790-1066

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  • Vikings
    • Why did the Vikings invade?
      • England not united it was divided into separate kingdoms.
        • English king to busy fighting one another to join forces against the Vikings.
      • Christian monasteries in England were easy targets
        • Monks had no weapons-buildings filled with valuable treasures e.g gold ,jewels and books
    • Phases
      • Phase 1 790-855ad =raiding
        • Began 790ad on the costal areas of the British isles
          • Regular hit&run raids to take treasure and slaves e.g  Lidisfarne
            • Monasteries isolated/undefended
              • More raids in Wessex- King Redwulf of Northumbria killed
      • Phase 2 865-990ad =invasion and settlement
        • 865ad-Vikings invaded with huge army from Denmark
          • Vikings controlled Northumbrian city of Jorvik and every Anglo-Saxon kingdom except Wessex
            • From 871-899ad King Alfred the great of Wessex resisted Viking attacks
      • Phase 3 991-1066ad =conquest
        • Nearly all countries overrun by Vikings.
          • England had four kings between 1013-1042
            • King Cnut was the greatest who was king of both England&Denmark
    • How successfully did the Anglo-Saxons respond to the Viking threat?
      • Fought back
        • won some important battles e.g Edington 878ad
        • Viking army too strong and won most battles.
      • Improved Defences
        • Alfred the Great improved the army,built a navy and strong towns,burhs
        • the cost of these were expensive and taxes increased
      • Compromised
        • Vikings ruled Danelaw and there was a period of peace
          • Vikings control was strengthened-large area of England
      • Paid money
        • danegeld stopped Vikings invading futher
          • did not stop the conquest
    • What was the impact of the Viking invasion and conquest?
      • Terror
        • Nobody knew when, where or how the Vikings were going to attack next
          • The fighting was savage and caused chaos and destruction-angle-Saxons would have been terrified
      • Religion and Culture
        • Most Vikings converted to Christianity-leader built churches.
          • the two cultures merged with inter-marriages and the Viking language brought new words
      • Insercurity
        • Hoards of treasure were buried in England by Anglo-Saxons to hide wealth
          • England united under one ruler in 927ad to fight the threat.
      • Land
        • Vikings conquered most of England. Anglo-Saxons would have lost their land to the Viking settlers who gave it to their warriors.
          • Danelaw was controlled by the vikings
      • Trade
        • Vikings established trade centres e.g York.
          • tableware, glass beads, pottery, bone combs/leather goods, jewellery and cloth were produced

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