• Created by: evepoag
  • Created on: 19-05-22 11:16
What is anaphylaxis?
A serious hypersensitivity reaction that is usually rapid in onset and may cause death.
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How is severe anaphylaxis characterised?
Compromise in airway, breathing, and/or circulation

and skin changes
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What is an allergen?
An antigen that causes an allergic reaction
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What is type 1 hypersensitivity?
reactions mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE)
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What is released during this hypersensitive reaction?
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What is refractory anaphylaxis?
It is anaphylaxis that requires ongoing treatment despite 2 doses of IM adrenaline
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What are some of the most common causes/triggers of anaphylaxis?
Peanuts, antibiotics, neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs), chlorhexidine, contrast media, insect stings
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What are the 4 criteria for the diagnosis of anaphylaxis?
1. Airway
2. Breathing
3. Circulation
4. Skin/mucosal changes
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How do symptoms present?
Sudden onset and rapid progression
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Outline the emergency first aid for anaphylaxis
1. Diagnose
2. Call for help - resus team
3. Remove trigger if possible
4. Lie patient flat with legs elevated or sitting to help breathing
5. Give IM adrenaline
6. High flow oxygen
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Part 2
7. Apply monitoring - ECG, blood pressure, pulse oximetry
8. No response - repeat second IM injection
9. No response - ensure resus team is called and follow refractory algorithm
10. administer IV fluids
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Where should you inject IM adrenaline?
middle third of thigh
(anterolateral aspect)
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What does of IM adrenaline is given to adults over 12 years old?
500 micrograms
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What IV fluids and how much would you administer to an adult?
Crystalloid fluids
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Describe airway anaphylaxis symptoms
Swelling of tongue
Hoarse voice
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Describe breathing anaphylaxis symptoms
Effort to breathe
Cyanosis - skin colour
Dropping oxygen saturations
Increase respiratory rate
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Describe circulation anaphylaxis symptoms
Low blood pressure
Reduced consciousness
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Describe disability anaphylaxis symptoms
reduced consciousness
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Describe exposure anaphylaxis symptoms
urticarial rash
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What 3 drugs can be administered to aid with emergency anaphylaxis first aid?
1. Adrenaline
2. Hydrocoristone - dampens inflammatory response
3. Chlorphenamine - counteracts histamine release
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Outline the refractory anaphylaxis treatment
1. Seek medical help immediately
2. establish IV access
3. administer rapid IV fluid bolus
4. give IM adrenaline injections every 5 minutes until an adrenaline infusion has started
5. give high flow oxygen
6. monitor and get bloods
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What effect does adrenaline have on the body?
Reverses vasodilation
Reduces tissue oedema
Dilates bronchial airways
Increase myocardial infarction
Suppresses histamine
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How is severe anaphylaxis characterised?


Compromise in airway, breathing, and/or circulation

and skin changes

Card 3


What is an allergen?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is type 1 hypersensitivity?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is released during this hypersensitive reaction?


Preview of the front of card 5
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