Aggression Research Flashcards

Research flashcards for Aggression :) 

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Aggression (Genetic Factors): Lagerspetz (1971)
(Selective Breeding) Selectively bred mice to be 50% more aggressive within 19 generations.
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Aggression (Genetic Factors): Lagerspetz (1981)
(Selective Breeding) Selectively bred mice could be conditioned to be less aggressive.
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Aggression (Genetic Factors): Caccora
(Twin Studies) Found that genes accounted for 40% of variation in aggression.
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Aggression (Genetic Factors): Canter (1973)
(Twin Studies) Found a small correlation of 0.14 for MZ twins reared together.
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Aggression (Genetic Factors): Hutchings and Mednick (1973)
(Adoption studies) Condisered 14,000 adoptions in Denmark, found positive correlation between the number of convictions of child and biological parent.
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Aggression (Genetic Factors): Brunner
Found that aggressiveness is influenced by a variant of the MAOA gene, studied large Dutch family where males had mutant form of MAOA.
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Aggression (Genetic Factors): Cases (1995)
Mice genetically engineering to lack MAOA had enhanced aggression.
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Aggression (Neural): Cases (1995)
Serotonin in normal levels has a calming and inhibiting effect on neural firing within the brain.
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Aggression (Anatomical): Wong et al. (1997)
The AMYGDALA has reduced size and activity in violent criminals.
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Aggression (Anatomical): Muller et al. (2003)
Increased activity in AMYGDALA, related to aggression.
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Aggression (Anatomical): Raine et al. (1997)
Found reduced PRE-FRONTAL CORTEX activity in the brains of 41 murderers.
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Aggression (Anatomical): CASE STUDY: GAGE
Damage to pre-frontal cortex, caused aggressive personality.
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Aggression (Hormonal): Beeman (1947)
Castrated domesticated animals before puberty = less aggressive. Re-established normal levels of aggression using testosterone injections.
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Aggression (Hormonal): Vom Saal (1983)
Found that female rates who were situated next to males in the womb were more aggressive than those not, exposed to higher levels of testosterone.
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Aggression (Hormonal): Dabbs et al. (1995)
Found that those who had committed sexual and violent crimes had the highest levels of testosterone.
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Aggression (Hormonal): Pillay (1996)
Both males and females in high ranked aggressive sports have high testosterone levels.
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Aggression (SLT): Bandura’s BOBO DOLL STUDY
Children saw adult behave towards bobo doll, 1st group agg. 2nd group non aggressive model, 3rd no model. Allowed to play in room of toys inc. Bobo doll, frustrated from being prevented from playing with the toys group one more likely to hit doll
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Aggression (SLT): Bandura (1963)
66 nursery school children into 3 groups, film where adult aggressive towards a bobo doll. Condition 1: neither rewarded or punished, 2: rewarded , 3: punished. Children in condition 2 behaved most aggressively, condition 3 least, supports SLT.
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Aggression (SLT): Cumberbatch (1990)
Found that children who had not played with a Bobo Doll before were five times as likely to imitate the aggressive behaviour than those who were familiar with it; he claims that the novelty value of the doll makes imitation more likely.
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Aggression (SLT): Williams (1981)
Levels of verbal and physical aggression increased in remote Canadian community after introduction of TV, supports media role.
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Aggression (Deindividuation): Le Bon (1985)
First to recognise how behaviour changes within a crowd, he suggested that a ‘collective mindset’ takes over and the crowd acts as one, with the individual losing any self control and becoming submerged in the crowd. Anonymity = most important factor
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Aggression (Deindividuation): Zimbardo (1970)
More to deindividuation than just anonymity, reduced responsibility, increased arousal, sensory overload and altered consciousness play a role.
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Aggression (Deindividuation): Malamuth and Check (1981)
Questioned male students at an American University, and found that almost 1/3 said that there was a chance that they would **** if there was no chance that they would be caught.
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Aggression (Deindividuation): Prentice-Dunn (1982)
Two types of self-awareness. Pubic – individual’s concern about impression presented to others, loss of this leads to loss of public standards of behaviours. Private – concern individual’s have for their thoughts and feelings, loss = following crowd
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Aggression (Deindividuation): Diener et al. (1976)
Observed the behaviour of over 1000 children on Halloween; house owner asked some of the children to give their names. Those who remained anonymous = more likely to steal some money and/or extra chocolate when left alone.
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Aggression (Institutional - Importation): Irwin and Cressey (1962)
Three categories of prison subculture; criminal: follow the norms associated with this role, convict: raised in the prison system, most likely to be aggressive, conventional: one-time offenders, not very aggressive.
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Aggression (Institutional - Importation): Kane and Janus (1981)
Inmates who had greater periods of unemployment, lower levels of education, and a more serious criminal record were more likely to be aggressive in prison
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Aggression (Institutional - Importation): Kane and Janus (1981)
Younger non-white inmates are more likely to be aggressive.
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Aggression (Institutional - Deprivation): Sykes (1958)
Thought that prison subculture originates from within the institution, not outside it. Sykes describes five deprivations that arise from ‘the indignities and degradations suffered by becoming an inmate’. LAGHS
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Aggression (Institutional - Deprivation): Sykes (1958)
Deprivation of goods and services leads to a sense of failure.
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Aggression (Institutional - Deprivation): Light (1991)
25% of prison assaults happen for no reason.
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Aggression (Group Displays): Irons (2001)
(Religious Displays) A universal dilemma faced by all groups is how to promote co-operation.
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Aggression (Group Displays):Wisbett (1993)
(Religious Displays) Social loafer theory can be applied to honour killings, where individuals may kill their own offspring to display commitment.
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Aggression (Group Displays): Mullen
(Lynch Mobs) Can be explained by Deindividuation theory.
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Aggression (Group Displays): Ridley (1997)
(Lynch Mobs) Group displays against outsiders become more likely when groups feel at risk - support!
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Aggression (Group Displays): Tolnay and Beck
(Lynch Mobs) Found that white mobs believed they were 'defending their community from black brutality' due to racist propoganda.
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Aggression (Group Displays): Shwarz and Barkey (1977)
(Sport Displays) Teams win more home games due to greater support from fans - group displays are a factor in success.
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Aggression (Evolutionary Explanations): Platek (2006)
Cuckoldry is very risky for males as they may lose invested resources and chance of reproduction.
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Aggression (Evolutionary Explanations): Daly and Wilson (1988)
Males in particular have developed a series of mate retention behaviours to prevent infidelity.
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Aggression (Evolutionary Explanations): Shackleford
Some mate retention behaviours are associated with female directed violence, self report from 560 women.
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Aggression (Evolutionary Explanations): Olweus (1978)
"Aggression is exerted against those who will not retaliate"
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Aggression (Evolutionary Explanations): Buss (1992)
Defines jealousy as an emotional state caused be a perceived threat to a relationship or position.
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Aggression (Evolutionary Explanations): Daly (1982)
Sexual jealousy is the leading cause of spouse battering.
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Aggression (Evolutionary Explanations): Kahe (2001)
Noted that there are many different types of sexual aggression (****) and not all have an evolutionary purpose (paedophilia, homosexual)
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Aggression (Deindividuation/Institutional): Zimbardo's STANDFORD PRISON EXPERIMENT
Male participants, deindividuated and anonymous through numbers (prisoners) and sunglasses (guards), extreme amounts of aggression displayed by guards, psychological harm to prisoners, should have lasted 2 weeks lasted 6 days.
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Card 2


(Selective Breeding) Selectively bred mice could be conditioned to be less aggressive.


Aggression (Genetic Factors): Lagerspetz (1981)

Card 3


(Twin Studies) Found that genes accounted for 40% of variation in aggression.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


(Twin Studies) Found a small correlation of 0.14 for MZ twins reared together.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


(Adoption studies) Condisered 14,000 adoptions in Denmark, found positive correlation between the number of convictions of child and biological parent.


Preview of the back of card 5
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