Age and crime: Sub-cultural Explanations - Crime and Deviance

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1. Which theorist studied a 1970's subculture and said it was a symbolic reaction to what?

  • Hebdige - 1970's Punk Rockers set out to deliberately shock, the establishment and society using style of ordinary objects, deviant symbols and sexual ******* gear to symbolically resist dominant cultural values of British society of the time
  • Phil Cohen - 1970's Skinheads - A symbolic reaction to decline of w/c communities eg over masculine, anti-immigration reaction to decline of exclusively white neighbourhoods
  • Phil Cohen - 1970's Punk Rockers - A symbolic reaction to decline of w/c communities eg over masculine, anti-immigration reaction to decline of exclusively white neighbourhoods
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2. What theory says working class deviant youth subcultures are a form of ideological resistance and to what?

  • Marxism - Resistance to dominant adult value system shaped by ruling class and capitalist values
  • Marxism - Resistance to dominant adult value system shaped by middle class and capitalist values
  • Neo Marxism - Resistance to dominant adult value system shaped by middle class and capitalist values

3. What are the techniques of neutralisation and who said it?

  • Kitsuse - Denail of responsibility, Denial of victim (says victim is wrong), Condemnation of condemners (feels picked on for something others do and not punished for), Appeal to higher loyalties (when rule ignored for good reason)
  • Matza - Denail of responsibility (not my fault), Denial of victim (victim is wrong), Condemnation of condemners (I feel picked on for something others do and not punished for), Appeal to higher loyalties (I ignored rule/law for a good reason)
  • Lea and Young - Denail of responsibility (not my fault), Denial of victim (victim is wrong), Condemnation of condemners (I feel picked on for something others do and not punished for), Appeal to higher loyalties (I ignored rule/law for a good reason)

4. What are two evaluative points of Cloward and Ohlin?

  • It shows that some people have a criminal opportunity structure, easy to accept that everyone would fit into one of just three categories
  • It shows that some people have a criminal opportunity structure, difficult to accept that everyone would fit into one of just three categories
  • It shows that some people have a criminal opportunity structure, difficult to accept that everyone would fit into one of just five categories

5. Which theorist studied a 1970's subculture and said it was symbolically resisting what?

  • Phil Cohen - 1970's Punk Rockers - A symbolic reaction to decline of w/c communities eg over masculine, anti-immigration reaction to decline of exclusively white neighbourhoods
  • Hebdige - 1970's Punk Rockers set out to deliberately shock, the establishment and society using style of ordinary objects, deviant symbols and sexual ******* gear to symbolically resist dominant cultural values of British society of the time
  • Phil Cohen - 1970's Skinheads - A symbolic reaction to decline of w/c communities eg over masculine, anti-immigration reaction to decline of exclusively white neighbourhoods

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