Age and crime: Sub-cultural Explanations - Crime and Deviance

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1. What has been the influence of functionalist subcultural theory?

  • Venkatesh's study of US drug gang challenged it as members held subculture values(Money) but used same means (selling) to achieve goals, also structure is similar to companies (Hirachy, meetings, promotion),desire to be excluded leads to inclusion
  • Venkatesh's study of US drug gang supports it as members held mainstream values (money) but used different means (drugs) to achieve goals, also structure is similar to companies (Hirachy, meetings, promotion),desire to be included leads to exclusion
  • Poole's study of US drug gang supports it as members held mainstream values (money) but used different means (drugs) to achieve goals, also structure is similar to companies (Hirachy, meetings, promotion),desire to be included leads to exclusion
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2. What are three evaluation points of Marxist sub-cultural theory?

  • Assumes a common value system (Marxist crit), Doesn't explain why people do or don't be in deviant subcultures, Understates gender race class, Over focus on w/c males not other deviant subcultures
  • Marxists underestimate extent some changes in youth culture are manufactured by capiatlaism & shaped by consumerism, Little empiracle research evidence,Katz (postmod) crime seduces young males for thrill not ideology & Lyng says edgework
  • Marxists overestimate extent some changes in culture are manufactured by youth & shaped by consumerism, Too much empiracle research evidence,Katz (Func) crime seduces young females for thrill not ideology & Lyng says centrework

3. What is a criticism of Cohen?

  • How can the young delinquents work out what middle class values are and invert them
  • How can the young delinquents work out what working class values are and invert them
  • How can the young criminals work out what police values are and invert them

4. What three adaptations or subcultures does the 'illegitimate opportunity structure' have?

  • Criminal (Good local crime subcultures, sussessful role models, hirachy to move up), Confict (Similar groups without local crime subculture fight), Retreativist (Individual, no opportunity/ability for first two, double failure, does drugs/alcohol)
  • Criminal (Bad local crime subcultures, unsussessful role models, hirachy immobile), Confict (Different groups with local crime subculture fight), Retreativist (Individual, reject opportunity/ability for first two, triple failure, does drugs/alcohol)
  • Deviant (Good local deviant subcultures, sussessful role models, hirachy to move up), Confict (Similar groups without local deviant subculture agree),Retreativist (Individual, no opportunity/ability for first two, double failure, does drugs/alcohol)

5. Sub-cultural theory includes reasearch into youth groups who have their own what?

  • Own taste in music, tv, media, etc
  • Own set of norms and values
  • Own style, dress, hair, etc

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