Age and crime: Sub-cultural Explanations - Crime and Deviance

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1. What are the techniques of neutralisation and who said it?

  • Kitsuse - Denail of responsibility, Denial of victim (says victim is wrong), Condemnation of condemners (feels picked on for something others do and not punished for), Appeal to higher loyalties (when rule ignored for good reason)
  • Matza - Denail of responsibility (not my fault), Denial of victim (victim is wrong), Condemnation of condemners (I feel picked on for something others do and not punished for), Appeal to higher loyalties (I ignored rule/law for a good reason)
  • Lea and Young - Denail of responsibility (not my fault), Denial of victim (victim is wrong), Condemnation of condemners (I feel picked on for something others do and not punished for), Appeal to higher loyalties (I ignored rule/law for a good reason)
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2. Sub-cultural theory includes reasearch into youth groups who have their own what?

  • Own set of norms and values
  • Own style, dress, hair, etc
  • Own taste in music, tv, media, etc

3. What are two evaluative points of Cloward and Ohlin?

  • It shows that some people have a criminal opportunity structure, easy to accept that everyone would fit into one of just three categories
  • It shows that some people have a criminal opportunity structure, difficult to accept that everyone would fit into one of just three categories
  • It shows that some people have a criminal opportunity structure, difficult to accept that everyone would fit into one of just five categories

4. What do most of these groups happen to be?

  • Male and working class
  • Female and working class
  • Male and under-class class

5. What are the two critisms of Scraton and Gordon and who are they from?

  • Lea and Young (Interactionalists) - Majority of crimes intra-racial so not political struggle against the white majority, argue Scraton is romanticing crime and criminals and thus ignoring the real harm to victims
  • Lea and Young (Left Realists) - Majority of crimes intra-racial so not political struggle against the white majority, argue Scraton is romanticing crime and criminals and thus ignoring the real harm to victims
  • Lea and Young (Right Realists) - Majority of crimes intra-racial so not political struggle against the white majority, argue Scraton is romanticing crime and criminals and thus ignoring the real harm to victims

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