Age and crime: Sub-cultural Explanations - Crime and Deviance

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1. What is the 'illegitimate opportunity structure'?

  • Parrel to legal infrastructure, all subcultures have a regular illegal career avaliable with illegal means of obtaining society's goals
  • Parrel to legal structure, some subcultures have a regular illegal career avaliable with illegal means of obtaining society's goals
  • Parrel to illegal structure, some cultures have a irregular legal unemployment avaliable with legal means of rejecting society's goals
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2. What are the two critisms of Scraton and Gordon and who are they from?

  • Lea and Young (Interactionalists) - Majority of crimes intra-racial so not political struggle against the white majority, argue Scraton is romanticing crime and criminals and thus ignoring the real harm to victims
  • Lea and Young (Left Realists) - Majority of crimes intra-racial so not political struggle against the white majority, argue Scraton is romanticing crime and criminals and thus ignoring the real harm to victims
  • Lea and Young (Right Realists) - Majority of crimes intra-racial so not political struggle against the white majority, argue Scraton is romanticing crime and criminals and thus ignoring the real harm to victims

3. What are two evaluative points of Cloward and Ohlin?

  • It shows that some people have a criminal opportunity structure, easy to accept that everyone would fit into one of just three categories
  • It shows that some people have a criminal opportunity structure, difficult to accept that everyone would fit into one of just three categories
  • It shows that some people have a criminal opportunity structure, difficult to accept that everyone would fit into one of just five categories

4. Which theorist studied a 1970's subculture and said it was symbolically resisting what?

  • Hebdige - 1970's Punk Rockers set out to deliberately shock, the establishment and society using style of ordinary objects, deviant symbols and sexual ******* gear to symbolically resist dominant cultural values of British society of the time
  • Phil Cohen - 1970's Skinheads - A symbolic reaction to decline of w/c communities eg over masculine, anti-immigration reaction to decline of exclusively white neighbourhoods
  • Phil Cohen - 1970's Punk Rockers - A symbolic reaction to decline of w/c communities eg over masculine, anti-immigration reaction to decline of exclusively white neighbourhoods

5. What Marxist criticised Cohen and how?

  • Brake - Working class youth more deviant because they're less likely to be in a position to show resistance to capitalism than older people
  • Brake - Working class youth more criminal because they're more likely to be in a position to show resistance to capitalism than older people
  • The other Cohen - Working class youth more criminal because they're more likely to be in a position to show resistance to capitalism than older people

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