Aetiologies of Depression

HideShow resource information
What is one physiological aetiology of uni-polar depression?
It is linked to brain chemistry and neurotransmitter dysfunction
1 of 71
such as what?
the monoanime hypothesis - MAOH
2 of 71
What is it thought about neurotransmitters that cause negativie thinking?
low levels of serotonin and noradrenaline
3 of 71
What do studies add to this theory?
SSRI drugs, which raise serotonin levels by blocking serotonin reuptake
4 of 71
What can this do?
lift the mood of someone with depression.
5 of 71
Where are low levels of noradrenaline by products found?
In the urine of people with depression
6 of 71
What does this suggest their brains?
low levels of noradrenaline
7 of 71
What high levels of the stress hormone is linked to depression?
8 of 71
What does cortisol production inhibit?
the production of serotonin causing depressive symptoms
9 of 71
What is a second physiological aetiology od depression?
the disorder is inherited through genes
10 of 71
People with depression have what faulty gene?
5-HTT gene
11 of 71
What gene and where is this found?
the serotonin transporter gene on chromosome 17
12 of 71
What does this lead to?
little serotonin being produced
13 of 71
What does the short version of the allele lead to?
a reduced serotonin production.
14 of 71
Where does evidence of a genetic link come from?
twin and adoption studies
15 of 71
What % of the general population suffer with depression?
16 of 71
What is the concordance rate for MZ twins?
17 of 71
How much for DZ twins?
18 of 71
What do adoption studies also suggest>
genetic aetiology
19 of 71
research shows that the biological parents of adopted children who develop depression are eight times more likely than adoptive parents
20 of 71
Where does supporting evidence come from?
21 of 71
What did he study?
177 pairs of same sex MZ and DZ twins
22 of 71
Where one of the twins had been diagnosed with?
23 of 71
What did he find as a concordance rate for MZ twins?
24 of 71
What was the rate for DZ twins?
25 of 71
What does this suggest?
there is a strong genetic aetiology in depression
26 of 71
in methodological terms, the physiological explanation is to be applauded because the twin, adoption and brain research on which it is based is?
objective, scientific and thus reliable.
27 of 71
For example, the effect of an?
IV (MZ or DZ twin) on the DV (risk of developing Depression
28 of 71
in studies such as what? enables what to be made?
McGuffin, comparisons
29 of 71
What do critics draw attention to?
the fact that MZ twins are often treated in a more similar way than DZ twins
30 of 71
Which could be what?
an environmental aetiology for Depression
31 of 71
What was one weakness of the physiological explanation?
can be seen as deterministic
32 of 71
What does it see depression as?
shaped and controlled by forces such as the 5HTT gene, neurotransmitters and hormones over which the ndividual has no control
33 of 71
What does this suggest about the aetiology of D?
is very pessimistic as nothing can be done to alter one's genes
34 of 71
What might one argue?
SSRI drugs such as Prozac are effective in raising serotonin levels
35 of 71
What does the psychological explanation reject?
these ideas based on nature and instead favours the idea that nurture causes Depression
36 of 71
What does the cognitive approach suggest about depression?
negative and distorted processing in the middle box of the computer analogy
37 of 71
What did Beck do?
Interviewed many patients with depression
38 of 71
What did he find?
they tend to think using negative schemas
39 of 71
What did he talk about them using?
A negative triad
40 of 71
What does this lead a person with D. to think?
They hold a negative and pessimistic view of themselves, the world and the future
41 of 71
For example?
A person might think they are not clever, they will not be able tope with an exam, thus will fail
42 of 71
What did Beck believe this negative tendency is triggered by?
a person encounters a situation that is similar to the conditions when they originally learn the schema
43 of 71
This is usually when?
in childhood and adolescence
44 of 71
What is the second psychological explanation?
centres that depression is a form of learned helplessness
45 of 71
Where did this idea emerge from?
Seligman's research with dogs
46 of 71
In this case what does a person try to do but fails?
control unpleasant life events (eg. domestic violence)
47 of 71
What do they gain?
a sense of inability to control their own life
48 of 71
What do they feel?
49 of 71
What do these people fail to learn?
strategies for coping with stressful life events
50 of 71
such as what?
51 of 71
What can this lead to?
Depression through the overuse of internal attributes
52 of 71
Even in cases when?
they could exercise control over their lives
53 of 71
What is one strength of this psychological explantations come in?
supporting evidence from langer and Rodin
54 of 71
What they find?
enabling old to make decisions whilst in an old people's home, had a postive effect on mental and physical health
55 of 71
What did choice and responsibility increase the level of?
pps feeligns of happiness,
56 of 71
And reduced the level of ?
57 of 71
What doe this reduce?
their chance of becomming depressed
58 of 71
What does this suggest?
aetiology of depression is closely related to learned helplessness
59 of 71
What does psychological explanation supply?
qualitative data about the thoughts and feelings of the depressive pateint
60 of 71
What does this provide?
depth and insight
61 of 71
And thus high on what?
62 of 71
However what do critics argue?
unstructured nature of interviews such as beck's means the questions are not consistent
63 of 71
What do the findings lack?
reliability and could well be subjective
64 of 71
What is emphasised?
negative thinking and learning in causing depression it tends to neglect the importance of genetics and brain chemicals
65 of 71
such as?
5HTTT and serotonin, and is thus oversimplified
66 of 71
What is the physiological explanation?
equally reductionist
67 of 71
What is the way forward?
diathesis-stress explanation
68 of 71
What does it duggest about people who develop depression?
born with a genetic tendency to depression
69 of 71
What does this take?
negative thinking and loss of control over life events to triggeer it off
70 of 71
In terms of aplication why are these useful?
They combine CBT and SSRIs
71 of 71

Other cards in this set

Card 2


such as what?


the monoanime hypothesis - MAOH

Card 3


What is it thought about neurotransmitters that cause negativie thinking?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What do studies add to this theory?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What can this do?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Depression resources »