Aetiologies of Depression

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  • Aetiologies of  Depression
    • Biological
      • Genes
        • Twin Studies
          • McGuffin et al
            • Studies 177 twins with depression. Found 46% MZ and 20%DZ concordance between the twins
              • Shows some heredity evidence for depression
                • Not solely due to genes
        • Family Studies
          • Gershon
            • Those with a first degree relative were 2 to 3 times higher than the general population
          • Same enviromental factors are at play, cannot deduce which is the cause of depression
            • Twin Studies
              • McGuffin et al
                • Studies 177 twins with depression. Found 46% MZ and 20%DZ concordance between the twins
                  • Shows some heredity evidence for depression
                    • Not solely due to genes
          • Same stressful life events will also affect you
            • Lack of  reduced care on an individual because of another's depression can trigger it.
        • Adoption Studies
          • Wender
            • Biological relatives of adopted sufferers seven times more likely to have major depression themselves
    • Psychological
      • Psychodynamic
        • Freud
          • Depression is like grief in that it often occurs through the loss of an important relationship
            • Repressed anger towards loss of person is directed through innerself.
              • Reduces self esteem and cbecomes vulnerable to depression in future
              • Actual losses and symbolic losses
                • Depression is like grief in that it often occurs through the loss of an important relationship
                  • Repressed anger towards loss of person is directed through innerself.
                    • Reduces self esteem and cbecomes vulnerable to depression in future
                    • Actual losses and symbolic losses
          • Shah and Waller
            • Those with depression described parents as affectionless
              • Depression could have created distorted thinking
          • Bifulco
            • Women who had lost their mother as a child were more likely to suffer anxiety  and depression as adults
              • Loss of parent could cause depression. Or stress.
          • Evaluation
            • Beck and Ward
              • Found no evidence of depression in dreams
            • Weissman
              • Opposed Freud's theory by finding depressed people express anger towards others
            • Cannot account for good childhoods and age differences,
        • Cognitive
          • Learned Helplessness
            • Seligman
              • Developed Theory through Dogs
              • A person  develops sense of helplessness after period of no control. Even after period they believe they are still helpless
              • Developed by Abramson
            • Lewinsohn
              • Teenagers with strong negative attributions were more likely to develop major depression
          • Beck's Theory of Depression
            • If we have a negative self schema, anything about our selves will be interpreted negatively.
          • Evaluation
            • Do negative thoughts lead to depression or depression lead to negative thoughts
              • Lewinsohn
                • Prospective study found no relationship between negative thoughts and irrational beliefs and future depression
            • Nolen-Hoeksma et al
              • Negative attribution style in older children predicted later depression
                • Negative thoughts may make people vulnerable to depression. Still need environmental trigger
            • Cannot deduce cognitive factors to be cause of depression just because of successfulness of therapies. Treatment-Aetoliogy fallacy.
      • Diatheis Stress Model
        • Kendler
          • Co-twins of those with depression more likely to contract the disiese because of the similar vulnerable genetics
        • Willhelm
          • Individuals who had the short-short form of serotonin transporter gene

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