Behavioural Explanation Of Depression.
Suggests that affective disorders are learnt through operant/classical conditioning. Operant - positive reinforcement is linked directly to depression. Classical - making associations between events and mood change.
Lewinsohn et al; Behavioural approach to depression.
Aim; Compare positive reinforcement by depressed/non-depressed participants.
Method; Independent design, participants completed self -reports on pleasant events schedule and self-rating of depresson using adjective checklist. (30 p's diagnosed with depression, another disorder and control group). Procedure; Quasi Experiment. Checked mood daily and completed the scales.
Results; Positive correlations between mood ratings and pleasant activities with involvement in pleasant activities being correlated with positive moods. Conclusion; Appears to be a link between reinforcement and mood.
Biological Explanation Of Depression.
Would suggest that there is a genetic disposition towards depression, Clear link with neurochemicals and depression, serotonin levels are lower in people diagnosed with depression.
Wender et al; Biological Explanation Of Depression.
Aim; Investigate contribution of genetic & environmental factors in the aetiology of mood disorders.
Participants; adoptive/biological relatives of 71 adult adoptees who had mood disorder. 71 who were normal for control.
Method; psychiatric evealutations of the relatives were made by independent blind diagnoses.
Results; 8X more likely to suffer from depression if biological relative has condition. 15X more likely to suffer from suicidal thoughts if biological relative has suffered. Conclusion; significant genetic link with depression.
Cognitive Explanation Of Depression.
Would suggest that faulty thinking patterns within the mind and the disruption of these cause depression.
Beck et al; Cognitive Explanation Of Depression.
Aim; Understand cognitive distortions in patients with depression.
Method; clinical interviews with p's undergoing therapy. Independent measures design. (p's - 50 with depression, 31 not suffering depression).
Procedure; face to face interviews with retrospective reports before and during the session.
Results; certain themes appeared - low self-esteem, self blame, desire to escape, feelings of unlovable and alone.
Conclusion; Cognitive distortions that deviate from realistic and logical thinking are related to and therefore can help explain depression.