Addiction

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What do the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria focus on?
1) Demonstrating a loss of control 2) Exhibit progressive increase in frequency time spent thinking about behaviour 3) Continu behaviour despite negative repercussions on their life.
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Biological explanation of gambling - Initiation?
Role of genetics, runs in families, Black et al (2006) first degree relative of pathological gamblers were more liekly to suffer from pathological gambling in contrast to distant relatives
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Biological explanation of gambling - Maintenance?
Pituitary adrenal response - recent research has suggested that pathological gambling is associated with an underactive pituitary adrenal response to gambling stimuli - Paris et al (2010)
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Biological explanation of gambling - Maintenance?
Sensation seeking - Zuckerman (1979) - Those with high sensation seeking individuals have lower apprecaition of risk and anticipate arousal as more positive than do low sensation seekers and more liekly to gamble.
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Biological explanation of gambling - Relapse?
Boredom avoidance - A pathological gambler is seen as a person who needs this intense stimulation and excitement - Blaszcynski et al (1990)
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Blaszcynski et al (1990)?
Found that poor tolerance for boredom may contribute to repetitive gambling behaviour. Pathological gamblers had significantly higher boredom proness scores than a control group.
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Paris et al (2010)?
Measured cortisol levels of gamblers before and after watching preferred mode of gambling and a neutral stimuli. Found that recreational gamblers had increased salivary cortisol levels in comparison to pathological gamblers.
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A strength for biological explanations of gambling is that it accounts for...
Indidivudal differences. Genetic explanations acount for individual differences and can explain why some people develop pathological gambling and others that have the same environmental experiences and life pressures don't.
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A limitation of the biological explanation for gambling is that it is reductionist.
It ignores environmental and situational factors (reductionist) and ignores importance of factors such as accessibility to gambling opportunities, incentives to gambling and provision of alcoholic drinks whilst gambling.
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What can biological explanations of gambling not explain?
Why some types of gambling are more addictive than others. Breen and Zimmerman (2001) - men and women who got hooked on video gambling became compulsive gamblers in about a year.
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Biological explanation of smoking - Initiation?
Family and twin studies estimate the heritability of tobacco smoking to be between 39% and 80%. (Vink et al 2005)
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Vink et al 2005?
Studied 1572 dutch twin pairs. Found both males and females individual differences in smoking inititation were explained by genetics (44%) and environmental (56%).
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Biological explanation of gambling - Initiation?

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Role of genetics, runs in families, Black et al (2006) first degree relative of pathological gamblers were more liekly to suffer from pathological gambling in contrast to distant relatives

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Biological explanation of gambling - Maintenance?

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Biological explanation of gambling - Maintenance?

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Biological explanation of gambling - Relapse?

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