A2 OCR Biology Key Terms and Definitions Cloning In Animals and Plants

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Cloning
Producing genetically identical copies of an organism.
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Vegetative Propagation
Asexual reproduction of plants, either natural or artificial, producing a clone.
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Sucker
An outgrowth from the roots of a plant that is capable of growing into a complete new plant; suckering is a natural method of vegetative propagation, for example in English Elm.
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Tissue Culture
The growth of many genetically identical plants from a small group of cells; the cells are grown in sterile nutrient medium before transfer to agar gel where they are stimulated to grow roots and shoots; this technique is known as micropropagation.
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Callus
A group of undifferentiated plant cells.
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Meristematic Cell
A plant cell that is able to divide by mitosis.
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Explant
A small group of cells taken from a parent plant to be used in tissue culture.
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Plant Growth Substance
A chemical produces in one part of a plant that affects the growth or development of another part of the plant (gibberellin and auxin) also known as plant growth regulators, and plant hormones.
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Auxin
A hormone produced by young plant tissues that affects different tissues in different ways, (for example, encouraging growth in stems, inhibiting growth of lateral buds; it has direct effects on cell membrane permeability and gene transcription.
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Cytokinin
A plant growth substance (hormone) that stimulates cell division.
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Annual
A plant that completes its life cycle in one year.
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Reproductive Cloning
The production of a complete new organism (usually applied only to animals) by cloning.
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Non-Reproductive Cloning
The production of a group of genetically identical cells, rather than a whole organism, by cloning.
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Stem Cell
An animal cell that has not differentiated, and is able to divide to form specialised types of cells.
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Totipotent
A stem cell is said to be totipotent if it is able to divide to form any of the different types of specialised cell in the body.
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Pluripotent
A stem cell is said to be pluripotent if it is able to divide to form many different types of specialised cell.
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Embryonic Stem Cells
Stem cells taken from an early embryo.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Asexual reproduction of plants, either natural or artificial, producing a clone.

Back

Vegetative Propagation

Card 3

Front

An outgrowth from the roots of a plant that is capable of growing into a complete new plant; suckering is a natural method of vegetative propagation, for example in English Elm.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The growth of many genetically identical plants from a small group of cells; the cells are grown in sterile nutrient medium before transfer to agar gel where they are stimulated to grow roots and shoots; this technique is known as micropropagation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A group of undifferentiated plant cells.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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