6.2 Nitrogen Compounds, Polymers and Synthesis

  • Created by: elbungay1
  • Created on: 12-05-19 09:47
How do Amines act as a Lewis Base?
The nitrogen atom has a lone pair of electrons for donation, making them a Lewis base
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How do amines act as a Bronsted-Lowry base?
It can accept a proton, ammonia and amines can accept protons on nitrogen atom forming a alkyl(ammonium) salt.
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How do amines react with dilute inorganic acids?
HCl is a stong acid and fully ionises, when reacting with amine, a alkylammonium salt is formed. Salt is formed as proton in acid is replaced by an alkylammonium ion.
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How are aliphatic amines formed?
Haloalkane refluxed with an excess of ammonia in ethanol conditions. Haloalkane reacts and forms an alkylammonium salt which reatcs with ammonia to form a primary amine and ammonium halide salt. Excess NH3 favours primary, excess haloalkane 2° and 3°
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Describe the preparation of aromatic amines
Benzene reacted with HNO3 and H2SO4 to form nitrobenzene. Nitrobenzene reduced to amine using reducing agent consisting of conc HCl and tin, refluxed at 100°C.
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Describe the structure of an amino acid
Class of compounds with two fucntional groups: carboxylic acid -COOH and amine -NH2. Have the general formula RCH(NH2)COOH. Monomers of polypeptide chains (proteins)
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What does the term amphoteric mean?
Means compound can act as both an acid and a base
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What is a Zwitterion and the isoelectric point?
Zwitterion is when the two fucntional groups of amino acid exchange a proton to form an internal salt. Isoelectric point is where there is no net electrical charge due to zwitterion having an internal balance of charge, occurs at certain pH.
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In an amino acid, what will the carboxylic acid functional group react with?
Metal oxides to produce a metal salt and water, alkalis to form salt and water, carbonates to produce a salt, water and carbon dioxide, alcohol to produce an ester and release water
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In an amino acid, what will the carboxylic acid functional group react with?
Amine functional group can act as base due to lone pair of electrons on nitrogen atom. When acid is added, amine group accepts a proton to form a ammonium salt
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What is an amide?
Class of compounds with acyl group (RC(O)-) attached to an amine group (-NH2). Can be 1°, 2° or 3° when hydrogen atoms in -NH2 substituted for alkyl change. React in condensation to form polyamides
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What are optical isomers
Molecules which are non-superimposible mirror images of each other. They have the same chemical properties but interact with polarised light different
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What is a chiral carbon?
A carbon that has 4 different groups attached to it, forms enantiomers which are optical isomers.
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What is a repeat unit?
An arrangement of atoms that occurs many times in a polymer
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How are polyamides formed?
Condensation polymer made of reaction between as dicarboxylic acid and a diamine to form an amide link. Can be formed from one monomer with both functional groups, such as an amino acid.
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Describe the hydrolysis of polyamides
When polyamide reacted with string aqueous acid, reatcion produces a diammonium salt and a dicarboxylic acid. When reacted with hot aqueous NaOH reaction produces a diamine and the salt of a dicarboxylic acid.
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Describe how you would extend the carbon chain length of a haloalkane
Nucleophilic substitution with a cyanide ion. Reflux haloalkane with KCN in ethanol conditions, forming a nitrile and a hydrogen halide
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describe how you would extend the carbon chain length of a carbonyl?
Nucleophilic addition of cyanide ion, using HCN to generate the ion.
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How would you reduce a nitrile to a primary aliphatic amine
React with hydrogen gas at 150°C with a Ni catalyst to reduce activation energy at raised pressure. Reducing agent LiAlH4 can also be used. RCN + 4[H] --> RCH2NH2
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Describe alkylation of a benzene ring
Haloalkane reacted with halogen carrier catalyst (e.g. AlCl3) to generate electrophile. electrophilic aromatic substitution occurs to generate alkylbenzene
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Describe acylation of a benzene ring
Acyl chloride reacted with halogen carrier catalyst (e.g. AlCl3) to generate electrophile. Used to add aldehyde or ketone to benzene ring.
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What are the advantages of using Quick fit apparatus?
Heat resistanct glassware, connectors can be used to fix apparatus into a variety of arrangements, such as distillation or reflux
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What is distillation?
Technique of separating miscible liquids or solutions. Distillation flask with antibumping granules connected to condenser leading to a collecting flask. Thermometer records temperature and used to identify chemical.
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What is heating under reflux?
Technique in organic synthesis used to ensure that volatile compounds are not lost from reaction mixture, volatile reagents are returned to reaction mixture, rather than escaping before they react
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do amines act as a Bronsted-Lowry base?

Back

It can accept a proton, ammonia and amines can accept protons on nitrogen atom forming a alkyl(ammonium) salt.

Card 3

Front

How do amines react with dilute inorganic acids?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are aliphatic amines formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the preparation of aromatic amines

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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