1.2.1 ELECTRON STRUCTURE

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What is the first ionisation energy?
the energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms
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what is the second ionisation energy?
the energy required to remove one electron from each ion in one mole of +1 ions
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Describe successive ionisation energies
they increase as electrons being removed on inner shells are harder to remove
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How are successive ionisation energies useful?
illustrate information about electron structure - how many shells etc.
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What factors affect ionisation energies?
Atomic shielding/radius // electron shielding // nuclear charge
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How does atomic shielding/radius affect ionisation energies?
in larger atoms, the outer electron is further away and less strongly attracted to the nucleus to easier to remove
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How does electron shielding affect ionisation energies?
more inner electrons shield the nuclear share from the outer electrons - electrons have the same charge so repel
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How does nuclear charge affect ionisation energies?
electrons closer the nucleus feel greater attraction / more protons in the nucleus, the greater the attraction
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How do ionisation energies change down a group?
they decrease as atomic radius and electron shielding increase
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How do ionisation energies change across a period?
increases across as nuclear charge increases, electrons are added to the same shell, electrons are attracted more strongly
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When removing an electron from the next shell of an atom what happens?
ionisation energy increases greatly
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What is the equation for finding how many electrons there are in each shell?
2(n^2)
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How many electrons can be held in shells 1,2,3 and 4?
1 = 2 // 2 = 8 // 3 = 18 // 4 = 32
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What is an orbital?
a region of space that can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins
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What is an s-orbital?
spherical shape
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describe the shape of a p-orbital
lobe/dumbbell shaped, right angles to each other
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What is the order of the orbitals?
s, p, d, f
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How many electrons can each orbital hold?
s = 2 // p = 6 // d = 10 // f =14
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Describe the features of shell 3
electrons fill the 4s subshells before filling the 3d subshells due to a lower relative energy
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Card 2

Front

what is the second ionisation energy?

Back

the energy required to remove one electron from each ion in one mole of +1 ions

Card 3

Front

Describe successive ionisation energies

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are successive ionisation energies useful?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What factors affect ionisation energies?

Back

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