Chemistry AS DF 12.1, 12.2, 12,3 DF3

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  • Created by: A.B.
  • Created on: 30-11-13 14:47
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  • DF Alkanes and other Hydrocarbons CI 12.1, 12.2, 12.3 DF3
    • Crude Oil
      • Mixture of hundreds of different hydrocarbons
        • Hydrocarbons are compounds of carbon and hydrogen.
        • Separated into fractions by the process of fractional distillation.
    • Open-chain alkanes
      • Have the general formula
      • Name ends in -ane
      • Are saturated - all single bonds
      • Are aliphatic - they have no ring structures
      • Naming alkanes
        • Choose the longest chain and name it
          • Use prefixes in alphabetical order for any alkyl side chains. Use di, tri, tetra if the side chains are identical
            • Show the position of any side chain by using numbers which are as low as possible
              • Comma between numbers and a hyphen between a number and letter
      • Burning alkanes
        • Complete combustion to produce carbon dioxide and water
    • Other hydrocarbons
      • Cycloalkanes
        • General formula
        • Name ends in -ane
        • Are saturated
        • Are not aromatic - do not have a benzene ring
      • Alkenes
        • General Formula
        • Name ends in -ene
        • Are unsaturated - there are one or more double bonds between carbon atoms in a molecule.
        • Are aliphatic - do not have  ring structures.
        • Are aromatic - they have one or more benzene rings in their structure
      • Arenes
        • Name ends in -ene
        • Saturated
        • Aromatic 0 one or more benzene rings in their structure


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