110- Fluid balance

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What is a fluid?
A substance with freely moving molecules that take the shape of a container
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What % of the body does fluid make up?
55 - 60% is fluid, 2/3 of which is intracellular (Plasma, digestive juices and interstitual fliud)
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What electrolites does intracellular fluid contain?
K+, Mg+ and HPo4+
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What electrolites does extracellular fluid contain?
Na+ and Cl-
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What are the functions of water in the body?
Maintains blood volume and pressure, Dissolves and transports substances, aqueous environment for metabolic reactions, participates in metabolic reactions, protection and lubrication, regulates body temp and elimination of waste
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What is dehydration?
When electrolite concentration outside cells increases causing intracellular fluid the diffuse out
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How does dehydration cause death?
It can change electrolite balance, effecting electrical impulses which can cause cardiac arrest
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How are fluid levels regulated?
Monotoring and extracellular fluid by receptors, water drawn out of salivary glands which is detected by the hypothalamus and drinking is initiated which is confirmed by stomach and is lost in urine and sweat
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What is the RNI for water intake?
18-60 = 35 ml/ Kg/ Day AND 60+ = 30ml/ Kg/ Day
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What factors affect fluid intake?
Age, physical activity, climate and body size
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How many glasses of water are we recommended to drink a day?
6-8 glasses
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Which drinks have diuretic effects?
Tea, coffee and alcohol
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Why is sodium important in fluid balance?
Maintains osmolarity, extracellular fluid which maintains blood volume, Acid base balance (combines Bicarbonate ions with chloride to balance anions and cations), gradients across membrane and absorption across kidney and GI tracts
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How do you convert salt to sodium?
1g salt = 0.4g sodium AND 1g sodium = 2.5g salt
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What % of sodium is excreted in urine?
90%
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What are the negative health effects of exessive sodium intake?
Increase blood pressure, stroke and heart disease, osteoporosis and stomach cancer
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Why is potassium important for fluid balance?
Maintains fluid, electrolyte and acid base balance, intracellular cation bound to phosphate and protein
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What is the RNI for potassium?
3500 mg/ day
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Where is potassium absorbed?
Small intestine and colon
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Where can potassium be found?
root veg, milk, meat and eggs
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Where is potassium excreted?
Kidney in urine
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What does potassium deficiency cause?
Weakness of skeletal muscle, cardiac arrest and mental depression
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What is chloride important for in fluid balance?
electrolyte balance, Ph of body fluid, transport CO2, forms HCL stomach acid
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RNI of chloride
2500 mg/d
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Sources of chloride
table salt, veg and fruit (seaweed and tomatoes)
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Card 2

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What % of the body does fluid make up?

Back

55 - 60% is fluid, 2/3 of which is intracellular (Plasma, digestive juices and interstitual fliud)

Card 3

Front

What electrolites does intracellular fluid contain?

Back

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Card 4

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What electrolites does extracellular fluid contain?

Back

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Card 5

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What are the functions of water in the body?

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