Fat Synthesis

  • Created by: ctlnclrk
  • Created on: 22-02-19 12:57
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  • Lipid Synthesis
    • Lipids in the Body
      • Lipids come from
        • Diet (absorbed)
          • FFAs
          • Monoacylglycerides
          • Cholesterol
        • Conversion of dietary FAs into required FAs
          • Elongation
          • Desaturation
        • Conversion of excess
          • Carbohydrates
          • Protein
      • Turned into
        • Triglycerides
          • 90%
        • Diglycerides
        • Phospholipids
        • Glycolipids
      • Lipids we absorb form lipids in the body
        • TGs in food
          • Consumed
          • Digested
            • TG's in body may be different from those in diet
          • Absorbed
        • De novo synthesis
          • Forming TGs
          • Using
            • Glycerol
            • FFAs
            • From diet
          • Fatty acid composition in body determined primarily by FA composition indiet
            • Synthesis of different TGs
            • Using same FAs
    • Synthesis of Triglycerides
      • Structure
        • Three fatty acids
          • Generic Structure: CH3-(CH2)n-CH2-CH2-COOH
        • Attached to glycerol
          • Ester linkages
            • Neutral fats
            • Neutralises COOH group
              • Fatty Acid no longer acidic
      • Location
        • Liver
        • Adipose
      • Getting Glycerol
        • Liver
          • Dietary TG
          • Mobilisation of adipose TGs
        • Liver and Adipose
          • Dietary glucose
        • Needs phosphorylated
          • Form ester link
          • To Glycerol Phosphate
        • Availability
          • Any glycerol from
            • FFA release
            • Mobilisation of adipose
            • Needs transported to the liver
              • Phosphorylated
                • Into glyceryl-3-Phosphate
                  • Can
                    • Enter gluconeogenesis
                    • Be oxidised
                    • Used to synthesis new TGs
                • Glycerol Kinase
                • Uses ATP
      • Glycerol 3 Phosphate
        • from Dietary Glucose
          • Location
            • Liver
            • Adipose
          • Glycolysis
            • DHAP produced
              • Intermediate compound
              • Usually continues oxidation
                • Glycolysis = energy needed
              • Energy need satisfied
                • Excess produced
                • Shunted off for G-3-P synthesis
                  • Insulin regulated
                  • Only occurs in fed state
                  • Glycerol Phosphate DHA
                    • Enzyme
                  • NADH --> NAD+
                  • Glycerol 3 Phosphate
      • Process
        • Phosphorylation of glycerol
          • Prepares for esterification
          • Form TG
        • Free Fatty Acids
          • Acylated
            • Prepared for esterification
            • Turned to Fatty Acyl CoA
            • Addition of acyl group
        • Step 1
          • Fatty Acyl CoA Added
          • Carbon 1
          • Forms Lysophosphotadic Acid
        • Step 2
          • Fatty Acyl CoA added
          • Carbon 2
          • Phosphatidic Acid
        • Step 3
          • Phophate group removed
          • Carbon 3
          • Diacylglycerol formed
        • Step 4
          • Fatty Acyl CoA added
          • Carbon 3
          • Triacyl glycerol
        • Enzymes
          • Steps 1,2,4
            • Acyltransferase
          • Step 3
            • Phosphatase
      • Fate
        • Adipose tissue
          • Stored
        • Liver
          • Transported
            • Mechanism for delivering specific FAs to different tissues
          • Around body
          • Via  VLDL
            • Very low density lipoproteins

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