Who participates and to what extent?
1. Milbrath and Goel labelled the population according to levels of involvement.
a) Gladiators: Small percentage of activists who are keen participants
b) Spectators: Large majority, those who observe the contest but limit their participation to voting
c) Apathetics: Non-participants who do not even watch the contest and are indifferent to its outcome.
2. Parry concluded that
a) 23.2% were involved in a variety of political activities beyond voting
b) 51% limited their involvement to voting in elections
c) 25.85% were inactive.