Who participates and to what extent?

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Who participates and to what extent?


1.       Milbrath and Goel labelled the population according to levels of involvement.

a)      Gladiators: Small percentage of activists who are keen participants

b)      Spectators: Large majority, those who observe the contest but limit their participation to voting

c)       Apathetics: Non-participants who do not even watch the contest and are indifferent to its outcome.

2.       Parry concluded that

a)      23.2% were involved in a variety of political activities beyond voting

b)       51% limited their involvement to voting in elections

c)       25.85% were inactive.




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