Democracy

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  • Democracy
    • Nature of democracy
      • Democracy is most simply defined as 'RULE BY THE PEOPLE
        • Demos = The people
      • It is based on two principles:
        • POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
          • Key political decisions are made by the people. This is reflected in thee idea of gov't by the people
        • POLITICAL EQUALITY
          • Each citizen has a free and equal opportunity to influence political decisions
      • There are a number of competing models
        • The key distinction is between direct democracy and representative democaracy
          • DD: people make decisions themselves
          • RD: the people choose who will make the decisions for them
    • Direct Democracy
      • Democracy based on the direct, unmediated and continuous   participation of citizens in the tasks of government
        • Obliterates the distinction  between people and government
      • DIRECT: People 'make' policy decisions- they do not merely choose who will rule for them
      • CONTINUOUS: People 'engage' in politics on a regular and ongoing basis- all decisions are made by the people
      • Historic examples: Athens and   in the Paris Commune   (1871)
        • Both oporated as forms of gov't by mass meeting
          • the most modern form of DD is  through the use of REFERENDUMS
      • ADVANTAGE
        • Genuine democ- Only pure form of democ; it ensures that people obey laws they've created.
        • Popular participation is gov't is freedom. It's how people determine their 'general will'
        • Education- DD creates better informed citizens
      • disadvantages
        • Time consuming: no time to engage in other activities
        • Unworkable in modern societies.
          • How can face-to-face interaction work in societies with 10,000+ people?
    • Reprentative Democracy
      • RD is a limited, indirect   form of democracy-  representatives   speak for, or act on behalf of the people
        • The main principle of RD is the process that rep's can be chosen and removed
          • This is usually done through popular elections
            • it's effectiveness is therefore based on the extent to which the electoral process gives   people control over gov't
      • INDIRECT: the public do not exercise power themselves; they choose who will rule on their behalf.
      • MEDIATED: the people are liked to the gov't through representative institutions E.G. political parties
      • LIMITED:  it is infrequent and brief, being restricted to the act of voting every few years
      • ADVANTAGES:
        • Works in larger, modern communities
        • places decision making in the hands of the well educated and proffesionals.
    • Liberal Democracy
      • LB is an indirect, representative form of democracy.
        • in a LB, the right to rule is gained through success in regular,   competitive  elections, conducted on the basis of political equality
          • ONE PERSON ONE VOTE Universal   Suffrage
      • Liberal democratic   regimes try to combine the 'liberal' goal of limited gov'ts with a 'democratic' commitment to elections and popular participation
    • Pluralist Democracy
      • many groups exist to provide a check and accountability  on the gov't
      • Flourishing civil society: lots of competing views and ideas
        • Examples: Pressure Groups, Business, Political Parties
    • Majoritarian VS Constitutional
      • Based on the will of the majority, Collective interest and  Parliamentary Sovereignty
      • Based on the protection of individual rights and freedoms, divided sovereignty
        • The US
        • Needs a codified Constitution
  • It is based on two principles:
    • POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
      • Key political decisions are made by the people. This is reflected in thee idea of gov't by the people
    • POLITICAL EQUALITY
      • Each citizen has a free and equal opportunity to influence political decisions
  • It is therefore a popular self-government
    • Democracy based on the direct, unmediated and continuous   participation of citizens in the tasks of government
      • Obliterates the distinction  between people and government
  • Both oporated as forms of gov't by mass meeting
    • the most modern form of DD is  through the use of REFERENDUMS
  • Political Parties are able to compete- Opportunity to gain power
    • Pluralist Democracy
      • many groups exist to provide a check and accountability  on the gov't
      • Flourishing civil society: lots of competing views and ideas
        • Examples: Pressure Groups, Business, Political Parties
  • Three Thories
    • Reprentative Democracy
      • RD is a limited, indirect   form of democracy-  representatives   speak for, or act on behalf of the people
        • The main principle of RD is the process that rep's can be chosen and removed
          • This is usually done through popular elections
            • it's effectiveness is therefore based on the extent to which the electoral process gives   people control over gov't
      • INDIRECT: the public do not exercise power themselves; they choose who will rule on their behalf.
      • MEDIATED: the people are liked to the gov't through representative institutions E.G. political parties
      • LIMITED:  it is infrequent and brief, being restricted to the act of voting every few years
      • ADVANTAGES:
        • Works in larger, modern communities
        • places decision making in the hands of the well educated and proffesionals.
    • Trusteeship
    • Doctrine of the Mandate
    • Descroptive
  • Doctrine of the Mandate
  • Parliamentary Democracy
    • Democracy
      • Nature of democracy
        • Democracy is most simply defined as 'RULE BY THE PEOPLE
          • Demos = The people
        • There are a number of competing models
          • The key distinction is between direct democracy and representative democaracy
            • DD: people make decisions themselves
            • RD: the people choose who will make the decisions for them
      • Direct Democracy
        • DIRECT: People 'make' policy decisions- they do not merely choose who will rule for them
        • CONTINUOUS: People 'engage' in politics on a regular and ongoing basis- all decisions are made by the people
        • Historic examples: Athens and   in the Paris Commune   (1871)
          • ADVANTAGE
            • Genuine democ- Only pure form of democ; it ensures that people obey laws they've created.
            • Popular participation is gov't is freedom. It's how people determine their 'general will'
            • Education- DD creates better informed citizens
          • disadvantages
            • Time consuming: no time to engage in other activities
            • Unworkable in modern societies.
              • How can face-to-face interaction work in societies with 10,000+ people?
        • Liberal Democracy
          • LB is an indirect, representative form of democracy.
            • in a LB, the right to rule is gained through success in regular,   competitive  elections, conducted on the basis of political equality
              • ONE PERSON ONE VOTE Universal   Suffrage
          • Liberal democratic   regimes try to combine the 'liberal' goal of limited gov'ts with a 'democratic' commitment to elections and popular participation
        • Majoritarian VS Constitutional
          • Based on the will of the majority, Collective interest and  Parliamentary Sovereignty
          • Based on the protection of individual rights and freedoms, divided sovereignty
            • The US
            • Needs a codified Constitution
      • Most popular PP elected, Deliberative Assembly, Consent from the people to pass laws.
      • UK= Westminster Model
        • Executive= Accountable
        • Bicameral system
    • UNMEDIATED: people 'are' the gov't- there is no separate class of professional politicians

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