Transitional metals


Things that you should know

  • Transitional metals = an element which can form one or more ions with an incomplete d subshell)

  • Complex ions = central metal atom or ion surrounded by ligands and bonded with dative covalent bonds. 

  • Catalyst = substances which speeds up a reaction and is unchanged at the end of a reaction

  • Ligands = molecules or ions with lone pairs of electrons that can be donated to form a dative covalent bond

  • These are d block elements 

  • Used in industry processes and transitional metals and their compounds have a wide number of uses. 

  • Transitional elements can lose elements to form positive ions. 

  • Transitional metals lose their 4s electrons before their 3d electrons. 

  • They form ions with more than one oxidation state. 

  • They can form compounds with metal ions in the 2+ oxidation state.

  • Transition metal compounds form complex ions. 

  • Complex ions consist of a central metal ion surrounded by ligands. 

  • A ligand is a molecule or ion that donates a pair of electrons to the central transition metal ion to form a dative covalent bond.

  • Transition metals, oxides of transition metals and transition metal complexes are used as industrial catalysts. 

  • Platinum and rhodium are used in catalytic converters in car exhaust. 

  • They convert carbon monoxide and nitrogen gas into carbon dioxide. 

  • These gases are not polluting. 

  • Magnesium dioxide acts as a catalyst in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen

  • Iron


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