- Created by: GeorgiaSMITH12343
- Created on: 22-01-21 10:08
Disciplines of geography, cartography & GIS:
Geography: study of place, space & relationships between ppl & the environment
Cartography: study & practice of making maps
GIS: (geographic information systems), a digital system for capturing, storing & displaying spatial data
What are maps? “A map is a symbolic representation of selected characteristics of a place, usually drawn on a flat surface”. (National geographic website)
Common features of maps:
- Scale: (i.e. 1:100)
- Orientation (shown by a north arrow)
- Symbology (symbols, colours & styles used to highlight features on map)
- Labels & annotations e.g. highlighting names of towns & roads.
- Legend/ key: so, users knows what the different symbols & styles mean.
- Grid/graticule: useful for showing distance & highlighting location at smaller scales
- Marginalia: is additional info e.g. title, author, map projection info (British national grid) & any other info
Why do we need maps? Part 1
- Navigation: maps of all format e.g. paper, digital, location-enabled mobile devices/satnav systems
- Aware of other places
- To know what is where
- To visualise spatial relationships & patterns- which wouldn’t be visible without a birds eye view
- To conduct spatial analysis on geographical data e.g. calculating variables like distance, gradient, aspect & intersection
- Now days maps are not so big & in form of sheets of paper, but interactive geo-databases
Why do we need maps? Part 2
Flat earth theory!
- Flat earthers: the theory behind the flat earth movement is that we exist on a large round disk that is surrounded by a wall of ice
- There is millennia of scientific, astrological & mathematical research that’s gone against the flat earth theory
- Cartography & mapping originate from Ancient Greeks through mathematical & philosophical studies such as Pythagoras, Eratosthenes, Ptolemy (some early attempts at calculating the earths circumference
- Moving forward in time, records from old sailors who produced charts mapping the seas for navigation also tells use about development of cartography & mapping science – related to the longitude problem & how to calculate it
The shape of the earth: part 1
- The earth is not a perfect sphere. It’s a geoid (which accounts for the topographic imperfections on the earth’s surface)
- The earths major axis is its X axis OR the equator & the Earths minor axis is the Y axis (like the lines used to define global time zones)
- An ellipse is an arc that extends round one side of the globe, from one point on the surface to another. If you rotate an ellipse about its minor or y axis you create an ellipsoid of rotation (closed loop).
- Our planet is wider at the equator by about 70,000 ft than at the poles. Due to centrifugal force created by earths constant rotation.
Eratosthenes calculation of…